Dogwood shrub: planting and care in the open ground, types and varieties with photos
Cornel (Cornus) is a representative of the cornel family. Dogwood is often a deciduous tree or shrub, but in some cases it is a perennial herbaceous or woody winter-green plant. This genus has 4 subgenera. The word dogwood is borrowed from the Turkic language, and it translates as "red", probably this plant was named after the color of the fruits of the most common type. Under natural conditions, such a plant can be found in southern and eastern Europe, Asia Minor, Japan, China and the Caucasus. People began to cultivate dogwood from ancient times. So, the ancient Greeks and Romans selected the best types of dogwood for cultivation in the gardens, and according to Virgil, in this matter they achieved some success. In middle latitudes, such a plant began to be cultivated in the 17th century, under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, who showed considerable interest in outlandish plants. At the same time, dogwood, due to very useful fruits, from which decoctions were prepared at that time, aroused special interest in the king. The first people who settled in America used such a plant to cleanse their teeth, while the aborigines of this continent made arrows out of it. Since cornel wood has high hardness, over time, they began to produce handles for doors and knockers, tennis rackets and shuttles for weaving equipment. There is information that the Holy Cross was also made from this plant. Pacific Dogwood Flower is the official flower of British Columbia, a province in Canada. At the same time, the flowering dogwood tree is the official tree of such states of America as Virginia and Missouri.
Dogwood bush features
The most famous species of this genus is the common dogwood (male), which is a shrub. It reaches a height of 2.5 meters and has glossy orange-red hanging stems. If the shoot is in contact with the surface of the soil, then it takes root quickly enough. Regularly or oppositely arranged leaf plates are painted in a deep green color. Milky-white flowers are part of inflorescences having a five-centimeter diameter. Flowering begins in May and lasts for half a month. Fruits can have 1 or 2 seeds, their ripening occurs in August – October, they can vary in shape and color. In cultural forms, the length of the fruit is three centimeters, as a rule, their shape is elongated-cylindrical, but it is also almost round, and also pear-shaped or barrel-shaped. As a rule, the fruit color is rich red, but yellow, black, pink, and purple are also found. The fruits also vary in their taste, so they can be tart, sweet, sweet-tart, dry or juicy. Dogwood itself can be formed as a bush or as a tree. This is a frost-resistant plant, but if the temperature drops below minus 30 degrees, the tips of its stems freeze. A bush of such a plant can live longer than a hundred years.
The most delicious dogwood- "Semen"
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What time to plant
It is recommended to plant cornel in open ground immediately after deciduous fall near poplar begins. In the autumn, planting such a shrub is much better than in the spring. The fact is that in spring you need to have time to plant a seedling in a rather short time period, namely, when the soil warms up, but the buds do not yet begin to open. For such a shrub, a partial shade area located on the south or southwest side of the garden is well suited. The soil should be saturated with lime, while the groundwater should not lie closer than 1.5 m to the surface of the soil.Dogwood can be grown in acidic soil, but it will develop worse, and the quality of the fruits will noticeably decrease. There should be a distance of at least 3-5 m between the shrub and any building, fence or other plant. For the shrub to produce fruit, it needs steam, and it is better if you have 3 cornel at once, while the distance between them should not be greater 3-5 m.
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The seedlings that are used for planting should be 2 years old. In height, they should reach 150 centimeters, and their trunk should have a two-centimeter diameter, with 3 to 5 skeletal branches on the seedling. The depth and diameter of the planting hole should be about 0.8 m. When the hole is ready, a stake should be driven into it, which will serve as a support for the seedling. At the same time, it is recommended to place the stake on the side on which the wind most often blows. When digging a hole, the top layer of soil, saturated with nutrients, must be combined with mineral fertilizers and humus, then the resulting mixture should be poured into the center of the landing pit with a knoll. On this mound, and it will be necessary to install a seedling, which then roots are neatly straightened. Then the pit should be covered with the same soil mixture, while the root neck of the plant should rise 3-4 cm above the ground surface. Water the planted plant using 30 liters of water. After the liquid is completely absorbed, the root neck should be flush with the surface of the soil. Then it will be necessary to shorten the stems of the plant by 1/3 and tie it to the stake. The trunk circle must be covered with a layer of mulch (humus or dry soil from the lower layer of the earth, which is not so fertile).
Dogwood must be grown in almost the same way as other fruit shrubs (for example, barberry or gooseberry). Such a shrub should be watered, weeded, pruned, trimmed, and fed on time, and you also need to regularly loosen the soil on the site. This plant has one feature, namely, in its fruiting there is no periodicity, which means that it gives a crop every year. Harvest for the next year is laid from May to June this year. In this case, flower buds must have time to fully form before the end of the period of active growth, their formation occurs at the same time with the growth of stems. In this regard, timely watering and top dressing are very important for dogwood.
To prevent liquid spreading over the soil surface during irrigation, a furrow must be made around the shrub. This will allow a well-absorbed root system to saturate well with water. Water the plant should be moderate, while not allowing stagnation of fluid in the roots. When the irrigation is completed, weeding and loosening the soil surface to a depth of 8 to 10 centimeters and in no case more. Until the middle of the season fertilizers use fertilizers containing nitrogen and phosphorus in their composition. In this case, cornel is fed from the second half for the most part with fertilizers containing potassium (for example, wood ash). Also, the plant responds well to fertilizing with humus or compost. But for it to give a good crop, the presence of calcium in the soil is simply necessary.
Dogwood needs a systematic pruning. In winter or at the beginning of spring, when the dogwood is still at rest, it is necessary to cut off from the bush those branches that are injured, damaged by frost or dried up, since it is on them that most often pests or pathogenic microbes settle. Each time, cutting a branch, it is necessary to dip the scissors in a solution of bleach (1: 3). If this is not done, then pathogens can be easily transferred to healthy plant tissues. Excessively old shoots must be shortened or cut to the base, this will lead to stimulation of the growth of young stems.Also, be sure to remove the stems and branches that grow inside the bush. If the bush is grafted, then it is necessary to cut off all the stems located below the grafting site. It is necessary to form a crown in very rare cases, since it naturally has a very spectacular appearance.
Diseases and pests
Dogwood is highly resistant to various diseases and harmful insects. However, dogwood can become infected with a fungal disease such as rust, but this is extremely rare. In an infected specimen, spots of yellow color appear on the surface of the leaf plates. To get rid of this disease, it will be necessary to treat the plant with Bordeaux fluid. Another plant occasionally gets sick with powdery mildew, which is disposed of with the help of colloidal sulfur. And it also happens that dogwood gets spotted, which Bordeaux fluid helps to cope with. Also, a snailworm can settle on a bush, which is destroyed by spraying the bush with lime, and it can also be disturbed by a caterpillar-multicolor, it is killed by Parisian greenery.
Dogwood in the suburbs
Most gardeners believe that such a plant will not survive in the suburbs and Moscow, and therefore it cannot be cultivated there. But this is not so. Thanks to the efforts of breeders, frost-resistant dogwood varieties were born that could not die even in cold weather minus 30 degrees, in connection with this the plant can be quite successfully grown even in the middle lane, while it will yield a rich harvest. It will be necessary to plant and care for the bush in the same way as in places with mild winters. However, it happens that in winter the tips of the stems of a plant freeze, and with the onset of spring they will need to be cut. To protect the young plant from frost, it will be necessary to cover it with burlap in the first years of life, while the trunk circle must be covered with a thick layer of mulch (humus or peat) in both old and young shrubs.
Amateur gardeners propagate dogwood most often by vegetative methods, but sometimes they use seeds for this.
Before sowing, the seeds that are previously cleaned of the pulp must be stratified. To do this, they are placed in moistened sawdust or moss, where they must stay for about 12 months, while it is necessary that the environment is constantly moist. On the cotyledon, the bone does not separate; in this regard, it must be buried in the soil by about 3 centimeters. If the seeds are not stratified, then the seedlings will appear only after a couple of years, while only a small part of the seeds will germinate. If you sow stratified bones, then seedlings can be seen in the same year. It is necessary to take care of crops and seedlings as usual, or rather, to water, feed, weed in a timely manner, and at the same time for the first time they will need protection from direct sunlight. By the end of the first year, seedlings will reach a height of only 30–40 mm, and by the end of the second, their length will be 10–15 centimeters. In the fall, two-year-old seedlings can be transplanted into the open soil in the nursery. The first fruits on such a plant will appear only after 7-10 years.
Seeds for sowing are taken from wild species of plants. After the young seedlings grown from them are strong, they are used as stocks for cultivated species of this plant.
Dogwood can be propagated only with green cuttings, which are taken from shrubs no younger than 5 or 6 years. Lignified cuttings root very weakly. The length of the cuttings varies from 10 to 15 centimeters, they are cut early in the morning from actively growing stems. It should be remembered that on each handle there should be 2 pairs of leaf plates and a well-developed growth point. Cut cuttings should immediately be placed in water. When harvesting cuttings, it should be noted that the slice below should be oblique and extend 5–10 mm below the kidney.Before planting the stalk, all the leaves must be cut off from the bottom, and it should be placed for 6–12 hours in a heteroauxin solution (3%). After this, the cuttings must be washed in running water and planted in a shaded place at an angle of 45 degrees. Top soil should be sprinkled with washed sand, with a layer thickness of 7 to 10 centimeters. Then, planting should be covered with plastic wrap so that there is a backlash of 15–20 centimeters between its surface and the handle. Plantings should be well watered and then monitored so that the soil is slightly moist all the time, while the cuttings must be protected from direct sunlight. Watering should be done through a fine sieve, as water must always be sprayed. Under the film, the temperature should not be more than 25 degrees, so if it becomes excessively hot under the shelter, you need to raise it so that the plantings are ventilated. The cuttings will give roots after 15–20 days, then it will be necessary to proceed to their hardening, which lasts about half a month. When the plant is hardened, the shelter will need to be removed for good, while feeding the cuttings should be done using liquid ammonium nitrate (30 grams of the substance per 10 liters of water). When the next autumn period comes, the plant will need to be planted in a permanent place.
How to propagate by vaccination
The budding takes place in August and September, for this, rooted or planted seedlings of wild dogwood are used, which should be 2 years old. As a scion take dogwood cultivars. Armed with a sharp knife, a cross-shaped incision should be made on the surface of the stock, and the depth of the vertical cut should be about 30 mm. With a scion, you need to cut a kidney with a piece of bark, a petiole of a leaf plate and a small part of wood. It should be placed in a vertically located incision, while the cortex on it must be carefully moved apart in different directions. To fix the scion, you should use a budding tape or you can take a simple stationery tape. If everything was done according to the rules, then after 15-20 days the petiole should fall. In October, the tape is removed. Next, you need to timely clean up the emerging shoots of the stock.
How to propagate layering
To obtain a layering, you should choose a one-year horizontally located arcuate stem. In spring, after the soil warms up, you will need to dig the soil around the shrub, while making fertilizers in it. Having leveled the surface of the soil, it is necessary to make grooves in it. Then, in these grooves it will be necessary to bend and put the stems that you have chosen to receive layering, they are fixed and covered with soil at the place of contact with the ground. Next, you need to pinch the tops of future layering. After green stems up to 10-12 centimeters tall grow in the place of fixation with the ground at the lay, they must be covered with ½ part of the ground. After 15–20 days, when the shoots will increase in growth by the same amount, they must again be sprinkled with ½ part of the earth. In autumn or when the next spring period begins, cuttings should be cut off from the parent plant and planted in a permanent place.
How to propagate by dividing the bush
This method of reproduction is used only when you need to transplant a bush. This can be done in the spring before the swelling of the kidneys or in the autumn - 4 weeks before the onset of the first frost. To do this, dig a dogwood and cut off all the old branches from it. Then you should carefully remove the earth from the root system, and only then divide the bush into several parts of approximately equal size. At the same time, each root should have good roots, as well as an unhealthy and not injured aerial part. Before planting the dividend, it is necessary to remove the old roots from it, and shorten the remaining ones a little.
In the event that you have planted a root plant, then it can be propagated by root offspring. To do this, dig out the shoots and plant it in a new place.If the dogwood is vaccinated, then its root shoot will grow from the stock. And since wild species of dogwood are often used as stock, it is recommended to simply remove such shoots.
Types and varieties of dogwood with photos and names
Dogwood (Cornus mas)
This type is the most popular among gardeners, and its detailed description can be found above. The varieties that are most popular are:
- Pyramidalis. The shape of the crown is pyramidal.
- Nana. A dwarf variety with a crown in the shape of a ball.
- Variegata. Leaflets have a white border.
- Aurea. Leaf plates have a golden color.
- Aurea Varigata. Variegated leaf plates are painted yellow.
White dogwood (Cornus alba)
This is also a fairly popular species, which in the wild can be found in Japan, China, Korea, as well as almost throughout Russia. This shrub reaches a height of 3 meters. Its thin flexible branches have an orange-red color, but there are varieties with brown-red and red-black branches. On the surface of young stems there is a bluish coating. The shape of the slightly wrinkled leaf plates is broadly egg-shaped, their length varies from 10 to 12 centimeters. Their front surface is dark green, and the inside is whitish. In autumn, their color changes to dark purple-red. Small white flowers in diameter reach 5 centimeters, they are part of inflorescences having a corymbose shape. Lush flowering is observed twice a year, namely, until the middle of the summer period and back in September. White spherical berries have a blue tint, and they fully ripen by the beginning of repeated flowering. Common decorative shapes:
- Silver-bordered. Green leaf plates have a white-cream border. In autumn, they change their color to carmine red. The bark has a red color. Bush in height reaches from 2 to 3 meters.
- Elegantissima. It has a very high frost resistance and is growing rapidly. The bush can reach three meters in height, the stems are red in color, which looks especially impressive in the winter. The leaf plates have uneven bordering the cream color, and also on the surface there are stripes and spots.
- Siberia Aurea. The height of the bush can vary from 1.5 to 2 meters. On erect stems of red color are pale yellow leaf plates. The flowers are white and cream. When the pale blue fruits begin to ripen, repeated flowering may begin.
- Siberia of Variegat. The bush can reach a height of 2 m. On the leaf plates there is a wide border, stripes and specks, which are painted in white and cream color. The main background of the leaves is green, while in autumn it turns purple, and the fringing and stripes with spots do not change their color. In winter, the bark on the stems remains coral red. Such a variety gives a poor harvest, and the bush itself is slow-growing. It is great for small gardens.
Dogwood red, or blood red (Cornus sanguinea)
Under natural conditions, this species can be found from the Balkans to the southern part of Scandinavia and from the lower reaches of the Don to the Baltic, while it prefers to grow in the undergrowth of mixed and deciduous forests, as well as on the shores of lakes and rivers. In height, such deciduous shrub reaches 4 meters, while its crown is branched. The stems are drooping and can be painted in red, green or purple. The egg-shaped rounded leaf plates have a rich green front surface with small pubescence and a backly whitish surface with dense pubescence. In autumn, the leaves change their color to deep red. Small dull white flowers are part of multi-flowered corymbose inflorescences, reaching a diameter of 7 centimeters. Flowering in this species lasts from 2 to 3 weeks. A lot of black berries ripen on the bush, which look very impressive against the background of rich red foliage. Decorative forms:
- Greenest. The stems, leafy fruits and berries have a green color.
- Variegata. The bush reaches a height of 4 meters. Variegated leaf plates are yellow in color. Pale green young stems eventually turn colored burgundy. The berries are blue-black.
- Dogwood mitch. On the surface of light yellow sheet plates are small specks.
Blooming dogwood (Cornus florida)
Homeland is the eastern part of North America. This deciduous tree has a dense and sprawling crown. Flowering is observed before the disclosure of leaf blades. In autumn, the leaves become saturated red. Varieties:
- Cherokee Chief. In height reaches from 4 to 6 meters. The color of the bract is pink-red.
- Rubra. Height varies from 4 to 6 meters. The color of the bracts can vary from rich red to pale pink.
Cornel stigonifera (Cornus stolonifera)
It is found in nature in North America, where it prefers to grow on the shores of watercourses in moist forests, while climbing to a height of 450–2700 m above sea level. This species is very similar to white dogwood, but in contrast to it, a large number of offspring grow near the bush. Such a shrub reaches 250 centimeters in height, has glossy coral-red stems, saturated green leafy plates, white-dairy flowers, which are part of inflorescences reaching a diameter of 5 centimeters. The berries are whitish blue. Decorative forms:
- White-fringed. White Gold variety is related to it - it is a medium-sized shrub with green leafy plates with whitish bordering.
- Flaviramea. Such a bush grows very quickly and has a round shape. The width and height of the bush can reach from 2 to 3 meters. Crohn is yellow in winter and spring, and greenish yellow in summer and autumn. Part of the green leaves in autumn becomes pale red, and the rest does not change its color.
- Kelsey. In such a dwarf shrub, the height can reach 100 centimeters and a width of about 150 centimeters. The bark can be rich green or light red. Leaf blades are green, they do not fly around until late autumn, but they are painted in orange or dark red.
Dogwood Coase (Cornus kousa)
The birthplace of this kind is China and Japan. This is a deciduous winter-resistant shrub, the height of which can reach up to 9 meters. Bracts are elegant and very beautiful. Varieties:
- Gold Star. The bush reaches a height of 5 to 7 meters. On the surface of green leaf plates there is a yellow pattern.
- Milky Way. The bush is tall enough. White cream creams.
There are creeping dogwoods, their experts identified in a separate genus (dogwoods Canadian and Swedish). The Svid family is also distinguished, which include the Meyer and Georgian dogwoods.
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The benefits and harms of dogwood
As a rule, the literature describes the benefits of dogwood ordinary. The benefit of this plant is that in its berries there is a lot of vitamin C, even more than in lemon. And they also have an anti-zingotic effect, in connection with this, they make pasta from such berries for long-distance sailors and astronauts. Still in the fruits are tannins that effectively hold the stool together. Such berries are recommended for diabetics to eat, since they lower blood sugar and also make the pancreas work more actively, which produces the necessary enzyme. Also, this plant has a choleretic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, diuretic and astringent effect. The fruits of such a plant improve appetite, normalize digestion, normalize blood pressure, eliminate pain in the head, and improve metabolic processes in the body. This plant is used to treat gout, swelling of the legs, intestinal diseases (for example, dysentery and diarrhea), cystitis, skin diseases and inflammation of the venous vessels. The healing properties are found both in plant berries and in foliage, roots, flowers and bark.
- Tincture of foliage. 200 ml of edible alcohol must be combined with 50 grams of finely chopped leaves. The tincture will be ready after half a month, it remains only to strain. Drink 3 times a day for 10-15 drops, diluting with water. The tool is suitable for the treatment of eczema, skin infections, hemorrhoids, gout, and is also used to get rid of intestinal parasites.
- A decoction of berries. Combine 200 ml of water with 1 large spoon of dried fruit. The mixture should be boiled for a third of an hour over low heat. Then she should brew for a couple of hours. Strained broth should be drunk according to ¼ Art. with vitamin deficiency three times a day before a meal.
- A decoction of roots and bark. 200 ml of water should be combined with 1 small spoon of finely chopped bark and roots. The mixture should be boiled for a quarter of an hour, and then let it brew for a couple of hours. A filtered broth is taken with rheumatism three times a day for 2 large tablespoons.
Also, drinks and jam from the fruits of such a plant are very tasty and healthy. Dried berries are used to prepare a delicious and healing broth in the winter.
Dogwood is contraindicated for people with high acidity, with weak intestinal motility, with frequent constipation, with individual intolerance to such a plant and with an unstable nervous system.