Lungwort: planting and care in the open ground, medicinal properties, varieties
The low herbaceous perennial plant Lungwort (Pulmonaria) is a representative of the Borage family. This genus unites about 15 species, which under natural conditions can be found on the territory of mixed and deciduous forests of Eurasia. The Latin name of the Lungwort was formed from the word “pulmo”, which translates as “lung”, due to the fact that for a very long time the leaves of such a plant have been used during the treatment of lung diseases. And the Russian name is due to the fact that this plant is a wonderful honey plant. Lungwort is often referred to as pulmonary grass, or jellyfish, or lungwort, or jellyfish. Lungwort in Europe began to be grown in the 16th century, and narrow-leaved lunatic, which is an ornamental plant, entered the culture only in the 19th century.
Features of the Lungwort
Lungwort is a herbaceous perennial plant, the height of which can vary from 0.08 to 0.5 m. The branched rhizome is located horizontally. Fleshy roots having a cord-shaped shape are extremely easy to injure, since they are very fragile, and it takes a lot of time to fully restore them. The basal rosette consists of many large leaf plates with long stalks. Whole leaf plates are pointed at the top, their shape depends on the species and varies from broad lanceolate to linear lanceolate. There are very few stem leaf plates compared to root ones; they are sessile and have a small size. On the surface of upright leafy peduncles, as a rule, there is pubescence, their formation occurs before the growth of basal leaf plates begins. Lungworms, whose flowers are painted in pink, blue, white, purple or blue, have a double perianth, five-toothed cup bell-shaped, as well as a five-lobed funnel corolla with a tube and open pharynx, 5 hair bundles protrude from it. Flowers are part of inflorescences, curls, which are apical. Such a culture has one distinctive feature, for example, flowers and buds on the same bush have a different color, for example, when a pink bud is opened, a flower of lilac, white, blue or blue color appears. Often, flowers of different colors can grow on one bush. Experts attribute this phenomenon to the fact that the acidity level of cell juice in the corollas gradually changes: in the pink corolla, the juice has an acid reaction, and in the blue or blue it has an alkaline reaction. Insects possessing long proboscis, for example, bumblebees, are necessary for pollination of the Lungwort. The fruit is a nut, after ripening it is divided into 4 single-seeded lobes with fleshy seedlings that attract ants.
Medunitsa or Pulmonaria. Legend of the Medunitsa.
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Planting Lungworms in the open ground
For the cultivation of Lungwort, a plot located in the shade or partial shade is perfectly suitable. The soil should be rich in humus, loose, weakly acidic, alkaline or neutral reaction. Loamy or sandy loamy soil is best suited. If this plant is planted in an open, well-lit area, then its flowers will have a paler color. The fact is that the Lungwort reacts extremely negatively to high air temperatures and to the scorching rays of the sun.
Before proceeding with the sowing of the Lungwort, the site must be prepared. To do this, he will need to dig a shovel bayonet to the depth with the simultaneous introduction of organic matter (humus or compost) into the soil. In this case, do not forget to remove all weed from the site. Sowing seeds in open soil is carried out in the spring, while the soil is saturated with melt water.Also, in a specialized store, if you wish, you can buy lunar seedlings, which are planted in open ground in the spring as well, after spring return frosts are left behind, and the topsoil is well warmed up. Before you buy seedlings, they need to be carefully inspected, and all those plants that are injured with signs of disease or the presence of harmful insects, as well as those that show that they were poorly or improperly looked after, should be discarded.
On the site that was prepared in advance, it is necessary to make landing pits, the distance between which should be at least 0.2-0.3 m, and their size should be such that the root system of the bushes together with the lump of earth could fit in them. If a site is selected for planting where stagnation of water is observed during rains, a drainage layer should be made at the bottom of each hole, for this you can use small pebbles, coarse sand or gravel. A raspberry is pulled out of the container together with an earthen lump and placed in a hole, which is then covered with soil, then the surface of the earth around the bushes is well compacted. A lunar landing plant needs moderate watering.
Care of the Lungwort in the garden
If a site located in partial shade or shade was selected for landing of a honeyfish, then caring for it is greatly simplified.
Watering should be systematic, while making sure that the soil on the site is always slightly moist. But at the same time, remember that liquid stagnation in the root system of plants should never be allowed. Particular attention should be paid to watering during the formation of buds and flowering. If the area is shaded or is in the shade, then the bushes will need to be watered much less often than flowers growing in a sunny place. If the honeyfish grows in a well-lit area, then it is recommended to fill its surface with a five-centimeter layer of mulch, in which case moisture from the soil will evaporate much more slowly. The mulching layer is also good because it can significantly reduce the number of weeds. As they grow older, bushes need less watering.
Such flowers need to be fed 1 time per season, in spring, at the very beginning of the active growth of young leaf plates. To do this, use a solution of complete mineral fertilizer (per 1 bucket of water from 15 to 20 grams).
When the bushes fade, they need to carefully remove the peduncles. If desired, secateurs or a sharp knife can also be trimmed and become unsightly old sheet plates. In late autumn, the area with these flowers should be covered with a layer of mulch (peat). Some species (for example, the mollusk and the mollusk are soft) are quite thermophilic, therefore they need a more reliable shelter, for this a thick layer of sawdust, dried leaves or needles is poured over the mulch.
Pests and diseases of the Lungwort
Such a culture is highly resistant to all diseases, as well as to most of the harmful insects. But if she does not provide proper care or does not adhere to the rules of agricultural technology of such a plant, then problems may arise with him. For example, if the bushes are abundantly watered or lingering rains begin, and even with sharp changes in temperatures, powdery mildew or root rot can hit the flowers. Diseased bushes should be dug up and destroyed as soon as possible, while the remaining healthy flowers should be sprayed with root fungal preparation containing copper for prevention of root rot and powdery mildew with sulfur containing agent.
Of the insects such a plant can harm snails and slugs. As a rule, they appear on the site when increased humidity is observed. If there are a lot of gastropods, then in order to get rid of them, the site must be treated with Thunder, and you must follow the instructions attached to it.However, if there is such an opportunity, then collect these pests manually or make a special trap, for this you need to dig several cans of glass into the soil flush with the surface of the plot, into which a small amount of fermented compote or dark beer is poured. Mollusks will surely slip into the smell of the bait and will be trapped.
Plants for shade. Brunner and the Lungwort
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Types and varieties of Lungwort with photos and names
Below will be described those types and varieties that are most popular among gardeners.
Lungwort (Pulmonaria vallarsae)
This species is considered very rare, in nature it is found only on the Apennines at an altitude of up to 1,500 meters above sea level. On the surface of the lanceolate sheet plates there is pubescence and a very large number of silver spots. The width of the foliage is about 10 centimeters, and their length is up to 20 centimeters. The height of the peduncles is about 0.45 m, red-purple flowers are formed on them. This species was used by breeders to obtain varieties with silver leaf plates. The following cultivar of such a Lungwort - Margery Fish, is most popular: the front surface of the leaf plates of such a frost-resistant plant is silver, and the wrong side is green.
Lungwort (Pulmonaria longifolia)
This species is widespread in the western or northern parts of Europe. The height of the bush is about 25 centimeters, the width of the spectacular leaf blades is about 6 centimeters, and their length can reach up to 50 centimeters, their shape is lanceolate-swept or lanceolate. The front surface of the foliage is pubescent, it is dark green with spots of silver color, and their lower surface is greenish-gray and more dense. Peduncles in height reach about 25 centimeters, pink flowers are formed on them, which after a while turn blue. The following garden forms are most popular with gardeners:
- Bertram Anderson. The color of the flowers is deep blue, and the leaf blades are dark green, their surface is decorated with irregularly shaped specks of whitish-silver color.
- Lewis Palmer. The length of the dark green leaf plates is about 0.3 m; there are whitish-green spots on their surface. The flowers are pink at first, but after some time their color changes to blue.
- Majesty. The color of the flowers is pinkish-blue. The length of the grayish-silver sheet plates is about 0.3 m, along the edge there is a narrow green border.
- Cevennensis. In this subspecies, large flowers are colored blue. The length of the narrow leaf plates is about 0.65 m, and on their surface there are dots and spots of silver color.
Lungwort red (Pulmonaria rubra)
This species is represented by a long-rhizome plant, which in nature can be found in the subalpine beech and pine forests of the mountains of Bulgaria, Hungary and Albania. Flowering in this species is long and lush, and its flowers are painted in a rich red color. Plain greenish sheet plates narrow and glossy. This type of gardeners is cultivated as a groundcover, which needs shelter for the winter. The following varieties are most popular:
- David ward. The color of the flowers is coral red. The greenish-blue leaf plates are large and wide; they have a clearly visible white border along the edge.
- Barfield Pink. The leaf plates are green and the flowers are pink, with narrow white stripes on their surface.
- Redstart. This variety is characterized by early flowering. The leaf blades are green and the flowers are coral red.
Lungwort officinalis (Pulmonaria officinalis)
In the deciduous forests of Eurasia, this species is very widespread. The height of the bushes is about 0.3 m. The rhizome is black and branched, the shoots are weak, and on their surface in the upper part there are glands and bristles.On the surface of the next green leaf plates are spots of whitish color. The basal leaves have an ovoid-heart-shaped shape and long petioles, while the stem leaves are not so wide and reach about 16 centimeters in length. Loose paired curls consist of red flowers, in diameter reaching about 15 mm, after some time they change their color to purple. The following varieties are most popular:
- Alba. Perianth is painted white.
- Imnaculata. Such a variety of leaf plates are plain green.
- White wings. White flowers have pink eyes. There are white spots on the surface of green leaf blades.
- Sissinghurst white. The length of the leaf plates is about 0.25 m; there are many white spots on their surface. The buds are pale pink, and the flowers are snowy white.
- Coral. The color of the flowers is pinkish. On the surface of green leaf plates there are specks of white color.
- Cambridge blue. The foliage is heart-shaped, and on its surface there is a large number of white spots. A lot of bluish-pink flowers form on the bush.
Lungwort soft (Pulmonaria mollis), or Lungworm soft (Pulmonaria mollissima = Pulmonaria montana)
This spectacular short-rhizome plant is found in nature in the forests of Dzungaria, Europe, Altai and the Caucasus. The height of the bushes is about 0.55 m and they are characterized by slow growth. The length of the rosette leaf plates is about half a meter, they have a greenish-silver color, and there is pubescence on their surface. Peduncles grow from the outlet, on which a large number of lilac-blue flowers are formed. Another bush looks attractive due to the fact that it has a strict and dense shape.
Lungworm unclear (Pulmonaria obscura), or Lungworm dark
In nature, this species can be found in mixed and deciduous forests in Europe. The height of the bush is about 0.3 m. The pointed basal leaf plates have an ovoid-heart-shaped shape and a plain green color, on their surface is a stiff bristle. They also have long petioles with narrow wings. The color of the corollas is pink, but after some time it changes to blue or violet-blue. This species also has a white-flowered form.
Sugar Lungwort (Pulmonaria saccharata), or Spotted Lungwort
This kind comes from the Apennine shrubs from the southeastern part of France and from the northern part of Italy. Such a plant from its stems forms floorings, the height of which can vary from 0.15 to 0.3 m. Matte evergreen leaf plates are oval, their width is about 10 centimeters, and their length is about 27 centimeters, there are silver spots on their surface. Inflorescences consist of flowers of carmine color, which after a while is replaced by purple. Thanks to this species, a large number of hybrids and varieties were born, which are popular among gardeners:
- Mrs. Moon. The color of the buds is pink, and the flowers are lilac blue. On the surface of the foliage there are specks of white and silver.
- Pink Don. White spots adorn leaf sheets. The flowers are pink at the beginning, but eventually they turn purple.
- Dora Beakveld. The color of the leaf plates is greenish, and the flowers are pale pink.
- Leopard. On the surface of the dark green foliage of such a hybrid there are a lot of spots. The color of flowers is pinkish red.
- Smokey blue. The flowers are painted in blue, and on the surface of the foliage are silver spots.
Lungwort (Pulmonaria angustifolia)
This species is found in nature on the territory of Asia Minor and Europe, while it prefers to grow on the river banks, as well as in deciduous forests. The height of such a perennial plant is about 0.3 m. On the surface of powerful stems there is a dense bristle and a small amount of glands.The shape of the sheet plates is linear-lanceolate, and their length is about 0.3 m, on both surfaces there is a coating consisting of bristles. Paired curls consist of carmine-red flowers, which after some time change their color to blue. The most popular are the following varieties:
- Mooses blue. The length of the dark green leaf plates is about 0.3 m; the flowers have a dark blue color.
- Manstad Blue. Vigorous bush is decorated with blue flowers and green plain foliage.
- Saman Glow. The flowers are painted in a salmon-pink color shade, while the foliage is green.
- Bats pink. The flowers have a coral pink color. The length of the dark green foliage is about 0.25 m, white spots are present on its surface.
Properties of Lungwort: benefits and harms
The healing properties of Lungwort
Lungwort has a unique composition, which includes tannins, mucus, tannins, saponins, iron, alkaloids, anthocyanins, flavonoids, silicic and ascorbic acids, carotene, rutin and other useful substances necessary for the human body. Saponins and tannins have a powerful emollient and expectorant effect, due to which the patient feels a significant improvement in well-being for any respiratory disease. Still such a plant is characterized by antibacterial, astringent, hemostatic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, antiseptic and enveloping effect. It can also strengthen immunity. Funds made on the basis of Lungwort are recommended for gynecological problems, cancer, hemorrhoids, skin diseases, bleeding, diseases of the respiratory system, stomach and intestines, for the prevention of heart attacks and strokes. But in order for such treatment to be effective, it is necessary to use these drugs correctly, and for this it is necessary to consult with a qualified specialist.
Fresh juice of such a flower can be used externally for wounds and cuts, as it has an astringent, hemostatic and antimicrobial effect. In case the wound is large enough, a slurry consisting of crushed shoots and foliage of the plant should be applied to its surface. Juice is still used in the treatment of cracks in the heels and corns.
LITTLE || Useful properties and application
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There are no special contraindications to the use of funds made on the basis of the medunica, but they should be taken with caution, as they can contribute to the appearance of severe nausea. Those people who have an individual intolerance to this plant should not use it for treatment.