Magonia: planting and care, cultivation in the Moscow region, types and varieties with photos
The plant mahonia (Mahonia) is represented by shrubs and trees and belongs to the barberry family. Wild magic can be found in the eastern and central regions of Asia, as well as in North America. This genus was named after the American gardener from Ireland, Bernard McMahon, he was engaged in the fact that in the eastern United States acclimatized plants that he brought from the western part of the country. He also became famous for being the first to create an American garden calendar. This genus unites approximately 50 species. Holly paddy is a typical species of this genus, where it comes from, it is also called “Oregon grape”. Such a shade-loving plant is highly resistant to frost and drought, as well as undemanding to the soil.
Features of the bush mahonia
Magonia is an evergreen shrub reaching a height of about 100 centimeters. It has abundant root shoots. On the old stems, the bark is brownish-gray, and on the young, grayish-pink. Unpaired composite leafy plates have light red petioles and consist of 5–9 sharp-toothed notches, which reach 15–25 millimeters in width and 3–9 centimeters in length. Such leaflets are dark green, leathery, their front surface is shiny, and the wrong side is matte. Multi-flowered axillary racemose or panicle-shaped inflorescences consist of bright flowers of a pale yellow color (sometimes found with a lemon tint), the diameter of which can reach 0.8 cm.The fruits are oblong-elliptical berries, painted in black and blue, on their surface there is a thick coating of bluish plaque, as well as a gun. In length, such berries reach 1 cm, and in width - 0.8 cm, they have a fairly pleasant sweet-sour taste and are used in the confectionery industry, and they also tint wines. Flowering is observed in April and May, while the ripening of berries occurs in September or August.
In landscape design, this plant is used to create borders, low hedges, group plantings, it is also planted solo or used to plant high bushes. In winter, shiny leaf plates change their color to green with a beautiful red tint. Also, this shrub looks very impressive during the ripening of purple-blue berries, covered with a waxy coating.
Shrubs for the garden. Site "Garden World"
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Growing Magonia in the open field
What time to plant
Planting of mahonia in open soil is done in spring. In this case, before the onset of frost, the plant will take root well and begin to grow actively. However, many gardeners successfully plant such a shrub both in summer and in autumn. Its landing should not be carried out only in late autumn and winter.
For landing, you should choose a well-lit area that has reliable protection from strong gusts of wind. Also, the bush can be grown in a small shade, only in this case there will definitely not be a rich harvest of berries. When choosing a place for planting, it should also be taken into account that direct rays of the sun can injure the delicate leaf plates of mahonia, so it is best that the selected site is in the lace penumbra of tall trees.
The soil must necessarily be loose, saturated with nutrients and with a high content of humus. In order to fill up the planting pit during the planting of a seedling, prepare a mixture consisting of humus, sod land and sand (2: 1: 1).
The preparation of the pit for landing should be undertaken half a month before the intended date of landing. The size of the landing pit should be equal to 0.5x0.5x0.5 m.In the event that the soil in the selected area is heavy clay, then the depth of the pit should be increased, since a drainage layer will need to be made at its bottom. After everything is ready, fill the pit in ½ part with the soil mixture, the composition of which is described above. After 14 days, compaction and subsidence of this soil should occur. When creating a border or hedge between copies, a distance of 100 centimeters should be observed. In the event that you create a loose landing, then the distance between the bushes should be equal to two meters.
Before planting a seedling, make a thorough inspection of its root system, while removing dried and diseased roots, as well as shortening too long. Place the cuts should be sprinkled with crushed charcoal. When both the seedling and the planting pit are ready, you can start planting. To do this, the root system must be placed in a pit, which is covered with earth mixtures (its composition is described above). When planting, make sure that the root neck of the plant rises slightly above the surface of the soil. The earth in the near-stem circle should be properly compacted, and also along the perimeter it is necessary to make a roller from the earth of a ten-centimeter height. Planted mahogany needs plentiful watering, so, under each bush, 20 liters of water should be poured. After the liquid is completely absorbed into the ground, the surface of the trunk circle should be covered with a layer of mulch.
Holly Magonia / Magnolia planting and care / flowering shrubs
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Caring for Magonia
Caring for mahonia is not much different from caring for other garden shrubs. Such a plant must provide systematic watering, timely top dressing, weeding and loosening of the soil. Sometimes in the evening it will be possible to spray the crown of the plant with water. The first pruning is done after the bush reaches the age of 10 years. It is also necessary, as necessary, to treat mahonia from pests and diseases.
How to water
This hygrophilous plant especially needs plentiful watering at a young age. After the seedling has been planted, it is watered abundantly. When watering the bush, do not forget to spray water and its crown. Watering is recommended in the evening, when there will no longer be scorching sunlight. Adult specimens need watering, as a rule, only in the dry period, and this procedure should be performed twice a week, pouring 1 bucket of water under each bush. If it rains systematically, then it will be possible not to water the plants at all. The surface of the trunk circle must be loosened to a not very great depth the day after irrigation or precipitation.
Topping up the shrub should be done twice a season, namely, at the very beginning of the spring period and in May, before it blooms. They feed the plant with mineral complexes, for example, Kemira-universal or Nitroammofoskoy. For 1 square meter, 100 grams of nutrient is taken. In autumn, the surface of the near-trunk circle of mahonia should be covered with a five-centimeter layer of mulch (humus or compost). In spring, you should dig the soil along with mulch.
This shrub can be transplanted during the entire growing season. However, it is better not to do this in late autumn, since with the onset of frost the plant may die due to the fact that it did not manage to take root properly. Magonia tolerates the transplant well enough, and this procedure must be performed in almost the same way as the initial landing.
In early spring, before the buds swell, it is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning. To do this, cut off all injured, damaged by the disease, pests or frosts, as well as dried and weakened branches. In order to maintain the splendor and compactness of the bushes, they must be cut after they have faded or in the fall.In this case, remember that the laying of flower buds occurs on last year's shoots, so they should be shortened no more than ½ part. If the plant is already very old, then if desired, you can make anti-aging pruning, which the plant tolerates very well.
Magonia is evergreen. Spring pruning.
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Preparing for the winter
Since this plant is perennial, it must be prepared for winter. If mahonia is grown in mid-latitudes or in Ukraine, then it will be able to winter without shelter. In the event that a very cold winter is expected with virtually no snow, it is better to cover the bushes with spruce branches. If the plant is still young, then experienced gardeners recommend, be sure to cover it with spruce branches for the winter.
Propagation of mahonia
Magonia can be propagated by seeds, cuttings and layering.
How to grow from seed
Seeds are sown in open soil in autumn immediately after harvesting, while they need to be buried in the soil by no more than 20 mm. Sowing can also be done in the spring, but in this case, the seeds will need to be stratified for 4 months at a temperature of 0-5 degrees. Recently emerged seedlings will need reliable protection against direct sunlight. In the autumn, thinning or seedlings are made on individual containers. After another 1–1.5 years, seedlings can be transplanted into open ground at a permanent place. Do not forget 2 or 3 of the first winter to cover young plants with spruce branches and toss them with snow. Such a shrub grown by the generative method will bloom only at the age of four.
The harvesting of cuttings is carried out at the very beginning of spring before the swelling of the kidneys. Remember that each handle should have 6 kidneys. Cuttings need to be immersed in a container of water placed in the garden, while only ½ of them should be in the liquid. After about 8 weeks, the roots that grow in the lower part of the stem will grow roots. After the roots reach 7 centimeters in length, the stalk must be planted in open soil and covered with a plastic bottle on top of which the neck is cut off first. After 1.5 weeks, the bottles are left only for the night, and they are removed for the day, this will allow the plants to gradually get used to the new conditions.
How to propagate layering
In spring, you need to choose a strong shoot shoot. It bends to the surface of the soil, fits into a previously prepared groove and is fixed in this position. In this case, the top of the stem should remain above the surface of the soil. Then the groove must be filled with earth. When watering the shrub in the summer, do not forget about layering. The rooted layers can be cut off from the parent bush and transplanted to a new permanent place only next spring.
Pests and diseases
Magonia has a very high resistance to diseases and pests. However, in some cases, such a shrub is affected by fungal diseases such as rust, powdery mildew, and spotting (stagonosporosis and phyllosticosis).
In order to get rid of powdery mildew, the affected shrub must be treated once every 10-12 days with a fungicide solution, for example, Topsin-M, Fundazol, Karatan, etc.
In order to cure rust from mahogany, it should be sprayed with fungicides such as: Abiga-Peak, Oksikhom, Tsineb, Bayleton, etc.
If large spots of brown color appeared on the leaf plates of the plant, then this means that it is affected by phylosticosis. Pycnids appear on the front of such spots. During the season, such a fungus can give several generations. Affected bushes lose their spectacular appearance, their leaf plates die off before the due date, flowering becomes less lush and productivity decreases significantly.
If oval-shaped spots with a dark border are located along the edge of the leaf plates, this indicates infection of the bush with stagonosporosis. On the front surface of the spots appear rounded pycnidia. The infected shrub first loses its spectacular appearance, and then completely dies.
To get rid of spotting, it is necessary in spring to collect and burn all the overwintered foliage. Then the shrubs are treated with Kaptan, Oksikhom or Ftalan. This must be done before the sap flow begins.
Growing mahonia in the suburbs
To cultivate mahonia in the middle latitudes should be exactly the same as in regions with less severe climates. This shrub has high frost resistance, and therefore it is not afraid of frosty winters. But at the same time, it should be remembered that young bushes for the winter must be covered with spruce branches and thrown them with snow, to get a not very big snowdrift.
Types and varieties of Mahonia with photos and names
Mahonia creeping (Mahonia repens)
The birthplace of this species is North America, at the moment it is not very popular with gardeners. Such a shrub is very similar in appearance to holly magonia. The bush in height almost never exceeds half a meter. The composition of the leaf plates includes from 3 to 7 ovoid-rounded pale greenish-blue leaves, they are leathery and have a sharp-toothed edge. Inflorescences of yellow-lemon color appear in mid-May, and then again in the last days of September. Berry ripening ends in mid-August. This species has a higher winter resistance compared to the hollow magonia, but its appearance is not as spectacular. There are 2 decorative shapes:
- Rotundifolia. The composition of the sheet plate includes 5 leaves of a rounded shape.
Japanese mahonia (Mahonia japonica)
It is found in nature in Japan, America, China and Europe. Flowering is observed from the last days of December until the beginning of spring. In height, such a large bush can reach 200 centimeters. It has an unusual and extremely spectacular shape. Its direct shoots stick out in different directions. It blooms with yellow racemose inflorescences, from which the aroma of lily of the valley emanates.
Magonia Winter Sun (Mahonia x media Winter sun)
This hybrid plant was obtained as a result of the crossbreeding of Lomarial and Mahonia Japanese. The height of the bush is about 2 meters. In the middle latitudes, such a hybrid is cultivated only in greenhouses, since its flowering is observed in winter.
This species comes from the west coast of the United States in height can reach 3 meters. The color of the inflorescences is light yellow, and the berries are purple-red. While the plant is young, its leaf blades have a purple hue; in the adult, they are green, and in the old, they are gray-gray.
Mahonia bract Soft Caress (Mahonia eurybracteata Soft Caress)
This spectacular Chinese plant has very elegant thin leafy plates. Typically, a container is used to grow such a variety.
Magonia Newubert (Mahonia neubertii)
Such a semi-evergreen shrub is a hybrid; it was obtained as a result of crossing barberry vulgaris and padonia tabonia. Such a rare plant has a very spectacular appearance. The height of the bush does not exceed 100 centimeters. Oblong-ovate leaf plates are similar in appearance to the leaves of barberry. There are no thorns on the stems.
In such a common species as magonia holly there are the following varieties:
- Walnut. In this shrub, leaf plates located on red petioles include 7 leaves, which are slightly denser and smaller than the main species.
- Graceful. The leaf plates of this variety are longer compared to the main species.
- Golden. The color of the foliage is golden yellow.
- Motley. Multi-colored leaf plates.
The most popular are the following varieties of magonia holly:
- Apollo. The variety was obtained in 1973 in Holland. The height of the bush with a compact crown can vary from 0.6 to 1 meter. The length of the leaf plates is about 30 centimeters; they comprise from 5 to 7 leaflets with a sharp-toothed edge. In the summer, they are painted green, and in August they appear bronze. Fragrant flowers are saturated yellow. On the surface of black and blue berries there is a waxy coating.
- Atropurpurea. This variety is also obtained in Holland. The height of the bush and the diameter of the crown are 0.6 m. The color of the glossy sheet plates is dark green, in length they reach 25 centimeters. The color of fragrant flowers is yellow. The berries are black and blue.
The properties of mahonia - harm and benefit
The fruits of mahonia contain a lot of ascorbic acid, which helps strengthen the immune system. If you simply eat these fruits, you can strengthen the walls of blood vessels, improve the outflow of lymph and accelerate blood circulation. Also in tanning are tannins, heterotypic alkaloids and organic acids.
Berberine is also in the fruits, which helps to protect the bone marrow and helps the body recover in a short time after a course of radiation and chemotherapy. Scientists from Australia found that berberine is able to increase the activity of insulin, in this regard, it began to be used during the treatment of complex forms of diabetes.
An extract from the roots of this plant stimulates the choleretic function of the body, so it is used for gastritis, hepatocholecystitis, hepatitis, inflammation and blockage of the biliary tract and giardiasis. It is also used to eliminate edema, during the treatment of acne, eczema and herpes, and is also used to normalize the functioning of the digestive tract and restore the intestinal microflora. Also, the hood has antibacterial and antiviral effects.
In the cortex of magonia of the hollow there are substances that are used in the treatment of psoriasis.
Means from mahonia cannot be used during pregnancy and lactation, as well as to persons with individual intolerance to such a plant. Also, you can not use such drugs for people with chronic intestinal upset, with an ulcer and increased acidity of gastric juice. The use of such drugs in individuals can cause diarrhea and nausea, in this regard, before eating the fruits of mahonia or using products prepared on its basis, you must always consult with a qualified specialist.
MAGONY'S ANTI-CANCER PROPERTIES AND TOTAL FREEDOM
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