Mammillaria: home care, transplantation and reproduction, species
One of the most popular cacti among flower growers is mammillaria, which is distinguished by its unpretentiousness and undemanding care. These cacti come from southern North America, as well as from Mexico, and in natural conditions they prefer to grow on chalky and calcareous rocks. Some species of mammillaria can be met at a very high altitude, about 2.5 thousand meters above sea level. Such cacti prefer to take root in rock crevices, in volcanic tuffs, and some species grow near the sea.
Mammillaria are not large, and their shape is most often cylindrical and round. These cacti are very pubescent. Mammillaria differs from other cacti in that on the surface of its stem there are small papillae, from which small spines of a hair-shaped form grow. This plant is highly resistant to cold and heat. But it should be noted that there are also species that are extremely demanding on weather conditions.
Mammillaria home care
Mammillaria in culture is a very popular cactus. But in order for her to grow well and develop in indoor conditions, she needs to provide good care and optimal conditions for development and growth.
This cactus is photophilous, so it needs a lot of light. If the plant does not have enough light, then it can die. Best bush will grow on the south balcony or loggia. To make him feel normal in the winter, he is provided with additional illumination, for this, a phytolamp is installed.
In order for the cactus to develop and grow within the normal range, it needs a moderate air temperature, or rather, from 15 to 25 degrees. In the summer on hot days, he will need protection from the direct rays of the sun, as they can harm him. If the bush overheats, it will become wrinkled or burns will appear on it. A plant is shaded only when it is in a dry and not aired place. If the window is constantly open, then there is no need to shade the bush.
In winter, a period of rest is observed in mammals. Best of all during this period, she is cool (from 7 to 10 degrees). During the dormant period, watering must be suspended. Those cacti, on the stems of which there is pubescence, in winter should be at a temperature of at least 15 degrees. If such bushes grow in a warmer place, then they can suffer.
Mammillaria is watered differently in winter and summer. During the dormant period, the bush needs to be watered very sparingly and rarely, so, on average, the procedure is carried out once every 15–20 days. In spring and summer, the number and abundance of irrigation is increased. In the warm season, on average, the soil mixture is moistened once every 7 days, however, the final frequency of irrigation is affected by weather conditions and the size of the tank. But you must remember that to moisten the soil mixture in the pot should only be when it is completely dry. Otherwise, you may harm the plant. It is best to water Mammillaria in the morning, in this case the surface of the soil mixture in the pot will be able to dry thoroughly until the evening.
Particular attention should be paid to cactus watering in autumn and winter. Indeed, it is in the cold season that it is very susceptible to waterlogging of the substrate, although stagnation of moisture in the root system cannot be allowed in the spring-summer period.
This plant is fed exclusively with specialized fertilizers for succulents and cacti. Moreover, only liquid fertilizers are chosen. Mammillaria is not fed year-round, but in April – October. In winter, when there is a dormant period, all feeding is stopped.
While Mammillaria is young, its transplants are carried out regularly 1 time per year.And when the plant becomes an adult, the number of transplants must be reduced to one in 2 years.
Such plants need a porous substrate, which allows water and air to pass through well. Pour a small amount of gravel and brick chips into the prepared soil mixture. Humus cannot be poured into the substrate, because cacti are not recommended to be grown in the soil mixture, which contains too many nutrients.
466. Cactus Mammillaria. A transplant of a rooted baby.
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When growing a cactus in room conditions, it regularly and quite effectively blooms. As a rule, the formation of the first buds occurs at the end of the dormant period. Ripening buds on the bush can be found in January. In this case, in April, the flower begins to be watered more abundantly, while the first flowers should already open in approximately March.
The development of buds in Mammillaria lasts about four weeks, precisely because of this, during this period, watering should be more plentiful and frequent, but balanced. Remember that during the ripening of the buds, the bush should stand on the windowsill so that direct sunlight does not fall on the side on which the flowers open after a while. The side on which the bud is located is rotated so that it is in the shade. If this is not done, then the bud may die.
Many flower growers use shoots for breeding mammals, because this method is distinguished by its simplicity and ease. However, experts advise, once every several years to grow such a cactus not from the stem, but from the seed. The fact is that the shoots of this plant can degenerate over time.
Mammillaria (cactus) from seeds
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Diseases and pests
When growing mammillaria at room conditions, the following problems may arise with it:
- Settled on a bush red spider mite. This pest can cause severe harm to the cactus, so you need to start fighting it immediately after it is found. In order to get rid of the tick, as a rule, special insecticidal preparations are used. They need to spray the bush for 15 days in accordance with the instructions that can be found on the packaging.
- Cactus plants appeared on the plant shields. It is quite difficult to get rid of shields, because adults have a protective shell. That is why in the fight against such a pest can not do without pesticides, or rather, insecticides. Treatments with such a drug are carried out regularly in accordance with the instructions for several weeks until all insects die.
- Appearance in the root system of the bush nematodes. The matter is complicated by the fact that the nematodes are underground on the roots, so finding them is not so simple. In most cases, the affected bush forms vesicles on the surface of the roots. To save the cactus, remove it from the substrate and cut off all the bubbles. Then for 10 minutes immerse the root system in very warm water (about 50 degrees). Then sprinkle the roots with charcoal powder, and plant the bush in a new pot and a fresh, disinfected substrate.
- The color of the trunk has changed or it has become soft. In most cases, this is due to the appearance of rot on the bush. Dry the soil thoroughly in a pot and adjust the watering.
As a rule, harmful insects settle on a cactus due to poor quality soil mixtures.
Types of mammillaria with photos and names
Mammillaria wilda (Mammillaria wildii)
In this species, the stem is elongated and thick. Most often, the stem across reaches about 50 millimeters. In such a plant, the papillae are elongated and thin, and golden spines grow on them. A distinctive feature of this species is that it has a central spike bent by a hook. It also has a very strong branching. During flowering, white rather large flowers appear on the bush.After pollination, berries form on this cactus.
Mammillaria Celman (Mammillaria zeilmanniana)
This species is most popular among gardeners. The not very large short stem of this cactus is painted in dark green color, and its shape is cylindrical. This side view of the flower forms many shoots. Flowering lasts quite a long time, or rather, about 6 months. During the flowering period, saturated pink flowers are formed on the bush. Pay particular attention to watering this species. The fact is that the stem has a soft structure, and therefore abundant and frequent watering is contraindicated. If this plant is properly looked after, it will be very resistant to adverse weather conditions. He is not afraid of lowering the air temperature to minus 7 degrees.
This species differs from the rest in that it grows very actively. On the surface of greenish stems there is a huge amount of white spines. As the plant grows, a bush is formed, which can reach a width of about 15 cm. Flowering does not differ in its duration, but it is quite spectacular. Large yellow flowers with a very pleasant smell are formed on the bush. After flowering, large fruits of a gray hue are formed on the cactus.
Mammillaria Blossfeld (Mammillaria blossfeldiana)
Unlike other species, this cactus has a stalk of a very unusual spherical shape. Its surface is covered with many spines of a yellowish tint. When grown at home, such a cactus blooms regularly. He forms large beautiful flowers, the petals of which are painted in pink, while the core is dark. This species, like the rest, is resistant to heat and cold. If the bush is provided with good and proper care, then even sudden changes in temperature will not harm it.
The short stalk of this cactus in length reaches only about 60 millimeters. Rigid spikes of a hook-shaped shape surround thin and soft hairs that are bundled. During flowering, small cream or white flowers form on the bush. This species is quite resistant to adverse weather conditions. If the plant is properly looked after, then even a slight drop in temperature will not harm it.
Mammillaria Carmen (Mammillaria carmenae)
This species is one of the most popular, and it grows well in indoor conditions. A not very large stem reaches about 50 millimeters in height. It has an unusual spherical shape, and its surface is covered with brown or white hairs. The width of an adult bush reaches about 15 cm. During flowering, pink or white flowers form on the plant. This species is highly resistant to adverse weather conditions, and if it is properly looked after, then even not very large frosts will harm it.
Mammillaria Haniana (Mammillaria hahniana)
The bush of this species is small. The shape of the stem is similar to a ball. This species forms several not very large groups, which in height and in diameter reach about 10 cm. The stem of this plant has a dense pubescence, which consists of white spines. During flowering, spectacular red flowers are formed on the bush. This cactus is unpretentious to temperature.
Mammillaria snow (Mammillaria nivosa)
This species got its name due to the fact that there are white hairs between the papillae. It differs from other species in that it contains milky juice. It can be detected simply by breaking a papilla or a stalk. This species has 6–13 radial spines and from 6 to 13 brownish or yellow spines. During flowering, yellow flowers appear on the bush, the length of which reaches 20 mm. This species is characterized by unpretentiousness to temperature. If he is well and properly looked after, then he will not be afraid of both heat and cold.
Mammillaria prolifera (Mammillaria prolifera)
This succulent plant grows pretty well indoors. In length, the bush of this species can reach about 50 mm, and across - up to 30 mm. On the surface of the rounded stem there are small tubercles, as well as many white spines, which makes the bush look “shaggy”. Flowering is observed in winter and spring, and it lasts from December to May. The bell-shaped flowers in diameter reach about 20 mm, and they can be painted in white or cream shade. This plant is not afraid of both heat and cold. But best of all, indoors, this cactus grows and develops at a temperature of 10-15 degrees.
Slim Mammillaria (Mammillaria elongata)
This species grows very well and develops in room conditions. The stalk in its diameter reaches about 20 millimeters, and its length can reach up to 20 centimeters. In this species, the stem is elongated and soft, with small tubercles on its surface. There are also golden spines on the stem, which are collected in not very large sockets. This species blooms from April to June, at which time yellow or white flowers appear on the plant. This species is recommended to grow in cool (10-15 degrees).
Cactus MAMMILARIA. How to grow Mammillaria at home
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