Lupine: planting and care in the open ground, growing from seeds, varieties
The lupine plant (Lupinus) is a member of the Legume family. This genus is represented by perennial and annual herbaceous plants, shrubs, shrubs and shrubs. In Latin, the word "Lupus" is translated as "wolf", while the people this plant is also called "wolf beans." Under natural conditions, it is found in 2 regions: in the Western Hemisphere, in the territory from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean and from Alaska to Patagonia, about 200 species grow, and in the Mediterranean-African - 11 annuals and 1 perennial grow. In the culture of American species, only variable lupine is grown, which the Incas began to breed already, and also the lupine is multi-leaved. The culture is highly resistant to drought, in connection with this, part of its species can be found in the deserts of California, Peru, Arizona, Texas and Chile, as well as in the Sahara. The English breeder D. Russell in 1911 created new types of lupine, characterized by high decorativeness, they were called "Russell hybrids", since then they have been very popular among gardeners who decorate them with flower beds and garden plots.
Short description of growing
- Landing. Sowing seeds for seedlings is carried out in the first days of March, in open soil it is transplanted at the stage of formation of the second or third real leaf plate. In open ground, sowing of seeds is carried out in April or in the late autumn before winter.
- Bloom. Lupine blooms in the last days of May or the first - in June, the flowering time is about 20 days.
- Illumination. Needs bright sunlight.
- Priming. He can be anything. However, the culture grows best on loamy soil with a reaction from weakly acidic to slightly alkaline.
- Watering. In spring, watered abundantly, and then sparingly.
- Fertilizer. Top dressing begins in the second year of growth in the spring. To do this, 1 time during the season, a complex mineral fertilizer is applied to the soil, which does not contain nitrogen.
- Breeding. The seeds.
- Harmful insects. Aphids, larvae of the germ fly and nodule weevils.
- Diseases. Root and gray rot, fusarium wilt, phomopsis, rust, spotting and viral mosaic.
Lupine has a core root system, which in some cases can go 200 cm deep. On the root surface there are small swellings that absorb nitrogen from the air, while saturating the soil under the bush. The stems can be grassy or woody, and the branches - protruding, creeping or erect. Regularly long-leaf leaf plates have a palm-complex shape, they are connected to the shoot by a leaf pillow with a long stipule. The apical racemose inflorescence consists of many flowers that are placed half-moon, whorled or alternately. In some species, the length of inflorescences can reach up to 100 centimeters, flowers can have a different color, for example: white, pink, purple, yellow, red, cream or all shades of purple. In various species of lupine, seeds may vary in size, shape or color. For example, beans of American species are smaller than the Mediterranean. After the beans have dried, they crack and seeds scatter around them, which are very small grains. The culture is used not only to decorate flower beds, but also as a siderate. The fact is that the foliage and shoots of lupine, decayed in the soil, become an excellent fertilizer. Fodder lupine is also widely cultivated.
LUPINE-BEAUTIFUL AND USEFUL PLANT !!!
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Growing Lupine from Seeds
Lupine is grown from seeds through seedlings.To do this, they are sown in the first days of March in a box filled with loose substrate, which includes soddy soil, peat and sand (2: 2: 1). Before sowing, the seed material is combined with powdered root nodules of the roots of old lupins, this helps to accelerate the growth of nitrogen-absorbing bacteria. Seedlings should appear after 7-15 days. In order for the shoots to be friendly, it is recommended to cover the crops from above with moistened gauze and put in a warm place.
If you decide to grow lupins from seeds, then you need to consider that the grown seedlings may not retain the varietal characteristics of the parent plant. Typically, a culture is grown from seed by breeders. Pink and purple colors are dominant, in connection with this they are able to survive in the next generation. At the same time, it is highly likely that the white color will be lost when growing a plant from seeds.
Planting seedlings in open ground is carried out after the formation of two or three real leaf plates. It is not recommended to delay the planting because the root root system develops very quickly and can be injured during transplantation.
LUPINE FIRST SPRINGS🌱 Lupine seed cultivation when planted in seedlings
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Outdoor lupine landing
What time to plant
Lupine can be grown from seeds not only through seedlings. If desired, the seeds can be sown directly in open ground, do it in April after the snow cover has melted, but the planting area should be prepared in the fall. Most often, gardeners resort to the winter sowing of seeds of this plant, which is carried out in the last days of October. Sowing lupine in the winter has many advantages, and it has virtually no contraindications. Before the onset of winter, seedlings do not have time to appear, while the seeds can undergo a natural stratification, and in the spring there will be friendly seedlings.
The seed material is buried in the soil by only 20 mm, after which the surface of the plot is covered with a layer of mulch (peat). In spring, friendly shoots will appear, while the first flowering will begin around August.
The culture grows best on sandy loam or loamy soil of a slightly alkaline or slightly acidic reaction. The site should be selected outdoor and well-lit. During the preparation of the site for spring sowing in autumn, acidic soil must be liming;
It will be necessary to re-introduce the flour into the soil after 3 or 4 years. Excessively alkaline soil is corrected with peat, for this, during digging, it is brought into the earth at the rate of 5 kilograms per 1 square meter. In spring, grown and stronger seedlings are planted on the site that you prepared in the fall, while the distance between the bushes should be from 0.3 to 0.5 m.
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It is very simple to grow lupine in your area. In the event that you cultivate perennial lupine, then during the first season it will be necessary to systematically loosen the soil surface on the site, while tearing out all the weed grass. Adult shrubs will need regular hilling, because their root neck is gradually exposed, with the isolation of the side outlets. When the bushes turn 5 or 6 years old, they need to be dug up and removed from the site, the fact is that over time the middle part of the plant dies, which negatively affects the decorativeness of the plant. Tall-growing varieties will need support, since their stems can be injured by strong gusts of wind. In the event that you need the bushes to bloom to the very frosts, you should carry out timely pruning of inflorescences that have begun to fade, do not allow them to dry directly on the bush. If you remove such inflorescences in a timely manner, then perennials can bloom repeatedly.Abundantly water the lupine only in spring, and then watering should be moderate.
In the first year of growth, the bushes do not need fertilizing. Fertilizer begins to be applied to the soil only in the second year and is done in spring. To do this, use mineral complex fertilizer, which does not include nitrogen. 5 grams of calcium chloride and 20 grams of superphosphate are added per 1 square meter of the plot. Bushes need to be fed annually in the spring.
Diseases and pests
During the formation of buds on the bushes, aphids can settle. At a later time, lupine can be damaged by nodule weevil or larvae of the sprout fly. In order to get rid of them, you will have to treat the bushes with a solution of an insecticidal preparation.
The most dangerous of all diseases for the culture are: fusarium wilting, mosaic, rust, rot (root and gray), spotting and phomopsis.
In order to prevent, it is imperative to follow the rules of agricultural technology of culture. Pay special attention to crop rotation rules, in the area where lupine grew, it can only be grown again after 3 years. It will grow best where cereals were grown before.
Care after flowering
What time to collect seeds
After full ripening, the lupine bean cracks, and seeds fly out of it in different directions. In order to have time to collect them before they get enough sleep, it is recommended to cut the fruits after they turn yellow and begin to dry. You will have to cut several times until you have the desired amount of beans.
How to care after flowering
After flowering is over, in the first days of October, pruning of foliage and peduncles is carried out, and also, if necessary, collect seeds. Perennials will need hilling, which will help cover the root neck if it is exposed. Then the surface of the plot is covered with a thick layer of sawdust so that the flowers do not freeze in winter.
Lupine planting and care / Lupine seed cultivation
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Types and varieties of lupins with photos and names
Below will be described those types of lupine, which are most widely known.
Lupine narrow-leaved, or blue
The height of such a herbaceous plant varies from 0.8 to 1.5 meters. On the surface of its erect shoots there is a rare pubescence. There is also pubescence on the underside of palm-separate leaf plates. Flowers without aroma can be painted in pink, white or purple (for some reason it was considered blue, which is why it was called “blue lupine”).
In nature, this species is found in the northwestern part of North America. It is characterized by high frost resistance, in connection with this, it grows well in mid-latitudes. The height of the bush varies from 0.8 to 1.2 meters. Direct shoots are almost bare. On the underside of the long-leafed palm leaf plates there is pubescence. The length of the inflorescence is from 0.3 to 0.35 m, they include a large number of blue flowers. Blooms in June, flowering time about 20 days. If in time to pick off the inflorescences that began to fade, then in the last summer weeks the bushes will bloom again.
On the surface of a bare-leafed stem, such an annual plant has pubescence. On the long petioles, pubescent leaf plates are located, which include 5 to 9 blades. The whorled inflorescence inflorescence consists of yellow flowers, the smell of which is very similar to Reseda.
The height of the bush is about one and a half meters. The upright stalk branches at the top. The palmate leaf plates on the lower surface have a dense pubescence, which is located so that the villi form a rim of silver color around the sheet. The front surface of the plate is smooth.Unflavored flowers in the inflorescence are arranged spirally, they are painted in pinkish, white or bluish color.
In addition to these species, lupine is also sometimes cultivated, variable, perennial, small-leaved, dwarf, Nutkan, tree-like, etc.
The most popular among gardeners are hybrids of many-leafed lupins, for example:
- Princess Juliana. The height of the bush is about 1.1 m. The length of racemes is up to 0.4 m, they consist of pinkish-white flowers. Flowering begins in June and lasts approximately 40 days.
- Apricot. The bush reaches a height of about 0.9 m. Orange flowers are collected in inflorescences, the length of which is about 0.4 m. Flowering begins in the second half of June, and it lasts from 30 to 35 days.
However, the most decorative and popular are the varieties of lupine, which was brought by breeder Russell:
- «Burg Freuilin". The flowers are painted pure white.
- «Mine Schloss". The color of the inflorescences is brick red.
- A series of undersized bright hybrids "Minaret" or "Splendid." This is a variety group of varieties and hybrids of a single color with a white or contrasting sail.
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