Yucca: home care, transplantation and reproduction, species
Perennial tree plant Yucca (Yucca) is part of the Agave family. This genus unites about 40 species that are found in nature in the subtropical zone of North America. In the homeland of such a plant, it is used in various fields. From pruned flowers, juice is extracted, characterized by a high sugar content. Durable fibers are made from filament yucca, they were used to make the first jeans, and then cotton replaced them. However, even today in the USA, yucca is added to the fabric used to make jeans, making it stronger and more durable. In addition, yucca fibers are used to make rope ropes and paper, plus such a plant has healing properties.
Yucca is an evergreen plant with a low stem, which may be unbranched or not branched at all. Part of the species of the stem cannot be discerned, while large spectacular leaf plates rise in a spiral immediately above the surface of the soil. Large erect inflorescences in length reach about 200 centimeters, they grow from the middle of the leaf rosette and have a panicle-shaped shape. Bell-shaped drooping flowers reach about 70 mm in length, they have a white color. The fruit is a ten-centimeter box, inside of which there are black seeds, in diameter reaching up to 10 mm.
When growing at home, it is recommended to place the tree in a hall or a large room, because in height it can reach about four meters. Such a plant looks very similar to a false palm. It should be borne in mind that flowering is observed only in adult yucca, during which white flowers appear outwardly similar to bells. Such a plant is often used as decoration of a large room, while those bushes that have several growth points (branching trunk) are of the greatest value.
Short description of growing
- Bloom. Yucca at home is grown as a decorative foliage large-sized.
- Illumination. Needs bright light, which must be diffused.
- Temperature mode. In the spring-summer period, the plant feels comfortable at a temperature of 20 to 25 degrees, in autumn and winter, the room should not be warmer than 12 degrees.
- Watering. Immediately after drying of the upper layer of the substrate in a pot to a depth of 50 mm, the plant is watered abundantly.
- Air humidity. Humidity requirements depend on the type of yucca. Some species need regular moisturizing from a spray bottle, a regular warm shower, and it is recommended to pour moistened expanded clay into a tray. However, some of the species grow at normal humidity, typical of living rooms.
- Fertilizers. In the spring-summer period, top dressing is carried out once every 15–20 days. For this, mineral complex fertilizer is used in half the dosage recommended by the manufacturer. The nutrient solution moisten the underside of the sheet plates.
- Rest period. Not pronounced.
- Transfer. It is carried out only if necessary after the root system becomes very crowded in a pot. This procedure is best done in the spring, in the summer it is transplanted only when absolutely necessary. It is not recommended to transplant very large bushes, but they need to replace the top layer of the substrate in the tank every year.
- Soil mix. The substrate should be neutral with a pH of 6.0–6.5. If possible, it is better to buy ready-made soil mix for yucca, while you need to pour 30 percent of sand (of the total volume) into it.
- Breeding. Trunk segments, cuttings and seed method.
- Harmful insects. Whiteflies, spider mites, scale insects and mealybugs.
- Diseases. If the plant is not properly maintained or does not provide him with suitable conditions for growth, then its foliage may lose its decorative effect.
Yucca in the room. All about growing.
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Homemade Yucca Care
When grown in indoor conditions, the yucca should provide very bright lighting, as it is light-loving. However, despite this, the flower should be shaded from direct rays of the sun, especially if it stands near the windows of the southern orientation. It grows best on the west and east window. If natural lighting is too scarce, then the bush needs to be highlighted for at least 16 hours a day with fluorescent lamps, for this they are installed at a distance of 0.3-0.6 m from the plant. In the warm season, if desired, the yucca can be transferred to the street, while for it you need to choose a place that will be protected from direct sunlight, as well as from rain. If in the summer it is in the room, then it should be systematically and quite often aired.
In the spring-summer period, make sure that the room is not colder than 20 degrees and not warmer - 25 degrees. If the tree has been exposed to direct sunlight for a long time, then it needs to be rearranged in a shaded place, and after it cools, it is moistened from the sprayer. In the autumn-winter period, the air temperature should not be higher than 12 degrees.
If during a warm wintering the lighting in the room is too poor, then the base of the stems can stretch out, and the foliage will become thin, dull and lethargic. If the yucca weakens, this can cause an invasion of harmful insects, while the foliage turns yellow and flies around. If you can’t provide a plant with a temperature of 10 to 12 degrees in the winter, then in the fall they keep it outside until the coldest weather, and in the spring they transfer it to fresh air as early as possible. If the bush on the street is put in a protected place, then even short-term frosts will not be able to harm it.
The following factors influence the frequency and abundance of irrigation culture:
- temperature and humidity level;
- the size of the pot and the material from which it is made;
- bush size;
- characteristics of the substrate.
In the spring-summer period, watering should be plentiful, it is carried out immediately after the top layer of the soil mixture dries to a depth of about 50 mm. If the weather is hot in the summer, then watering should be more frequent, but still between them the surface of the soil mixture must have time to dry out. If the yucca is cool, then the number of waterings is reduced, otherwise the liquid will stagnate in the soil mixture, which will cause rot to appear on the plant, and this can lead to its death.
Some species of yucca when grown at home must be systematically moistened from a sprayer. To do this, use boiled water at room temperature. To maintain high humidity in the pallet, you can pour moistened pebbles or gravel. During the moistening of the bush, it should be protected from direct sunlight, otherwise, burns may form on its surface. In order to remove dust and dirt from the leaves, the bush can sometimes be washed under a warm shower, while the surface of the substrate must be protected from liquid.
In spring and summer, such a culture should be fed regularly once every 15–20 days. To do this, use a diluted mineral complex fertilizer. The plant responds well to dressing with infusion of mullein, leaf humus or horse manure. However, experienced flower growers recommend spraying the underside of leaf blades with a solution of complex mineral fertilizer. If the plant is sick or has been transplanted not so long ago, then feeding should be stopped, since at this time they can only harm him.
As a rule, a yucca has only 1 trunk, but with the correct pruning it can form several trunks. To do this, you need a young bush, which must be healthy and strong, while its height should be at least 0.3 m. In the last spring or first summer weeks, cut off the upper part of the bush, for this you need to use a very sharp tool. You need to cut only 50-100 mm, but so that as much leaves as possible remain on the bush. Be sure to treat the places of cuts, for this they are sprinkled with coal powder.
It is better to transplant a yucca in the spring, but it can also be done in the summer, if necessary. At the bottom of the tank before planting, you need to make a good drainage layer, for this, expanded clay, pebbles or broken brick are used. The substrate should be medium neutral with a pH of 6.0–6.5 if peat is included. About 30 percent of the sand (of the total volume of the substrate) should be poured into the finished soil mixture.
Yucca is recommended to be transplanted by transshipment, while trying to keep the lump of land whole. If rot has appeared on the root system, for example, due to stagnation of the liquid in the substrate, then the plant should be transplanted as soon as possible, while the rotted areas are cut out. Yucca is well suited for hydroponic cultivation.
Yucca Home Care / Yucca Plant
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If desired, yucca can be grown from seeds. To do this, freshly picked seeds are sown in a substrate consisting of turf and leaf soil, as well as sand, which are taken in equal parts. Crops should be systematically watered, ventilated, and condensate must be removed from the surface of the shelter. The first seedlings should appear after about one month. After the shoots have grown and strengthened, they will need to be peaked in individual pots, in diameter reaching about 60 mm. Then they begin to gradually accustom them to the same care that an adult plant needs. After 12 months, the plants will need transshipment into larger pots (20-30 mm in diameter more than the previous ones).
Propagation by a segment of the trunk
Since at home such a plant grows very much, it is propagated by a segment of the trunk, if there is such a need. In the summer, several parts need to be cut from the trunk, while in length they should reach more than 20 centimeters. Segments are planted for rooting in a slightly moistened soil mixture consisting of peat and sand, while the cut should be at the bottom. Then the box is transferred to the street in a shaded place. On the parent bush, all places of the slices are covered with garden var. The planted segments must be covered with a film on top, it will help maintain the necessary level of air humidity, while the air temperature should be from 20 to 24 degrees. Make sure that the soil mixture is slightly moist at all times. Rooting of the segments will occur after 4-8 weeks.
Home plants. Part 1
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For propagation of such a plant, apical cuttings are also used. With a very sharp tool, cut off the top of the plant, while the places of the cuts are treated with carbon powder. The cutle must be left for 2 hours in the open air, so that the places of the slices have time to dry. Then it is planted for rooting in moistened sand or placed in a container with boiled water. When rooting cuttings in water, a piece of charcoal is placed in the container, it should protect the pieces from bacteria. Before the roots appear, rot may appear on the lower leaf plates. If this happens, then the leaves are removed and the water in the container is changed. After the roots grow, the stalk is planted in a pot filled with soil mixture.
- Yucca turns yellow. When yellowing the lower leaf plates, the yucca should not be scared, as this is a natural process.The fact is that green leaf plates can only be located at the top of the bush. The unusual appearance of such a plant is due precisely to the fact that it discards the lower leaf plates.
- Leaves fall. If part of the foliage flew around after the flower was bought and brought home or after a transplant, then this is his expected reaction to a change in familiar conditions. In the event that the foliage flies around in bulk, this may be due to the hypothermia of the plant or the fact that it was exposed to draft.
- The tips of the leaves dry and brown. Due to excessively low humidity, the tips, as well as the edge of the sheet plates, dry out and turn brown. This can also happen due to draft or because of excessively rare or scarce watering.
- Brown spots on the leaves. If brown spots form on the plate, this indicates that the lump of earth in the pot is dry.
- Leaves curl. If the room is very cold, then the edge of the foliage turns brown, while the plates themselves curl. In especially tender species, this can happen if it is cold at night, and you forget to remove the flower from the windowsill.
- Stains on foliage. Sometimes, due to scorching sunlight, dry spots of light color form on the surface of the sheet plates.
- Harmful insects. The most common pests on the plant are: whitefly, spider mite, scutellum and mealybug.
Types of yucca with photos and names
Yucca aloe (Yucca aloifolia)
In nature, this species is found in Jamaica, Central America, Bermuda, and also in southern North America. The plant is characterized by extremely slow growth, but in height it can reach about 8 meters. The tree-like stem in adult plants is highly branched. Outlets with fibrous foliage form on the upper parts of the branches. The length of the lanceolate leaf plates is about 50 centimeters; they are dark green with a spike at the apex and with a serrated edge. In an adult bush, flowering is observed in the summer, at which time a paniculate inflorescence is formed, reaching a half meter in length. It grows from the outlet and includes many bell-shaped flowers, reaching 30 mm across, they are painted in a whitish-cream shade with a purple tint.
In nature, this bushy, slow-growing plant is found in California, Mexico, and Arizona. The stalk is short, and the stiff and fibrous leaf plates are assembled into rosettes, which in diameter reach about 100 cm.The leathery greenish-gray foliage of a lanceolate shape has a length of about 100 cm, there is a spike at the top, and teeth along the edge. The inflorescence of this species is almost the same as that of Yucca aloe-elite, only it is longer (about 200 cm), and the flowers of the same color have a pleasant smell and are 5 mm larger. When the flowering ends, the rosette dies, with the formation of many processes at the base of the plant.
Yucca beak-shaped (Yucca rostrata)
This tree, with a thick trunk, can reach a height of about 300 cm, its crown is highly branched. There is a large number of skinny to the touch thin (width up to 10 mm) and long sheet plates, which can be convex or flat. There is a sharp spike at the top of the plate, and small teeth grow on the yellow edge. The sheet itself is decorated with stripes. On a long peduncle a panicle is formed, consisting of white flowers.
Short-leaved Yucca (Yucca brevifolia)
Either the tree-like yucca (Yucca arborescens) or the giant yucca. In nature, the species can be found in southeastern California, and even in Arizona, mainly in the dry parts. The height of the tree can reach up to 9 meters, and the diameter of its trunk reaches 50 centimeters. At the top of the trunk is highly branched. Thickly growing hard and short foliage (length about 0.3 m) in the middle part reaches about 15 mm in width, on the surface it has a groove, and on the top there is a spike, the edge is fine-toothed.At the top, the leaf is painted brown. A short peduncle consists of yellowish flowers.
Yucca Radiant (Yucca radiosa)
Or Yucca tall (Yucca elata). The height of this tree is about 7 meters. He forms a lot of densely arranged linear sheet-shaped plates, their length is about 0.6 meters, and at the widest point their width is only 10 mm. The plate tapers to the base, the tip is pointed, there are small grooves. The narrow white edges of the foliage are covered with a large number of thin threads. The length of the inflorescence is about 2 meters, at the top of it there are flowers collected in a panicle.
Yucca filamentous (Yucca filamentosa)
This plant comes from the east of North America. The stem is practically absent. The root system goes into the deep layers of the soil. Such a plant can grow greatly due to root offspring. It can withstand a short-term drop in temperature to minus 20 degrees. The leaf plates pointed at the top have a greenish-blue color, along the edge they are densely pubescent with thin curly white threads. The length of the foliage is about 0.7 m, and the width is up to 40 mm. To obtain germinating seeds, the plant must be artificially pollinated. On a two-meter peduncle, many drooping eight-centimeter flowers of yellowish-white color are formed. After flowering, a fruit is formed - a rounded box.
Yucca lobed (Yucca recurvifolia)
The trunk of such a plant is short (height about half a meter), in some cases it is highly branched. At its top, rigid fibrous sheet plates are assembled into a socket. Grayish-green drooping foliage leathery to the touch has a lanceolate shape and a length of about 100 cm, at the top there is a spike at the top, and a serrated edge.
Yucca Sisaya (Yucca glauca)
Such an evergreen plant reaches a height of about 200 cm, its homeland is the west of the United States. The stem is short. Meter sockets consist of densely arranged leathery fibrous foliage. Lanceolate bluish-green sheet plates with a white edge in length reach about 0.6 m. The edge can also be gray with peeling fibers. In adult plants, in the summer, a panicle-shaped inflorescence grows from a rosette, reaching a height of up to 100 cm. It consists of many bell-shaped flowers of a creamy white hue.
Yucca the Glorious (Yucca gloriosa)
Originally from the southeastern United States. In nature, the species is a spherical bush or a low tree (about 2 m). The tree-like stem can be weakly branching or solitary. Leathery to the touch lanceolate bluish-green leaf plates reach a length of 0.6 m, at the apex they have a sharp spike, and the edge is spongy. In summer, in summer, a panicle-shaped inflorescence grows out of the outlet, reaching a height of about 250 cm. A lot of five-centimeter hanging cream flowers with a purple tint are formed on it.
Yucca Elephant (Yucca elephantipes)
The fact is that this plant looks similar to an elephant leg. Over time, it becomes not a very tall tree or a growing bush and has a height of about 10 meters. The stem is tree-like, highly branched. On the tops of the branches are leaf sockets, consisting of rigid fibrous plates. The greenish, leathery, touchy lanceolate sheet plates are 50-100 cm long, have a serrated edge and have a sharp spike at the apex. In summer, an adult inflorescence forms about 100 cm long, which consists of many five-centimeter flowers.
Hailing from Mexico and the southern United States. A weakly branching tree-like stem is characterized by slow growth, in height it can reach about 5 meters. Leathery to the touch bluish-green lanceolate leaf plates are assembled into a tight outlet, they are straight or slightly curved, pointed at the apex, their length is more than 100 cm, and their width is up to 7 centimeters.In the summer, in adult bushes from the outlet, an inflorescence of about 100 cm in length appears, it consists of many hanging white bell-shaped flowers with a purple tint.
Or large-fruited yucca (Yucca macrocarpa). Sandy ground is growing in southern Arizona. A weakly branching or straight trunk reaches a height of about 4 meters. Rigid light-gray straight sheet plates have a length of about 50 cm and a width of up to 4 cm. The plate narrows slightly at the base, and the edge of it is covered with thin threads. The branches and peduncle are bent, and the loose inflorescence has a panicle-shaped shape.
Yucca South (Yucca australis)
Or Yucca filamentous (Yucca filifera). The height of the tree is about 10 meters, its upper part is highly branched. Thickly growing dark green leathery sheet plates to the touch have a length of about 30 centimeters, and a width of up to 3 centimeters, the edge of them is covered with threads. During flowering, a branched hanging inflorescence of a two-meter length is formed, which consists of a large number of cream-colored flowers.
Yucca! Pruning, cuttings, planting in a capsule of ceoflora!
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