Castor oil plant: planting and care in the open ground, views from the photo
Common castor bean (Ricinus communis) is a medicinal perennial garden and oilseed plants, is related to the family euphorbiaceae, and belongs to the monotypic genus (the genus consists of one species). Many varieties and garden forms of castor oil have quite a lot of popularity among gardeners. The birthplace of such a plant is probably Africa, and more precisely, Ethiopia. However, today in the wild it can be found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, for example: in Iran, Africa, Argentina, China, India and Brazil. In North Africa, Egypt has been cultivating castor oil plants for many hundreds of years, the fact is that the seeds of such a plant were found in the tombs of the kings of Egypt, built in the 4th – 3rd century BC. "Castor" from Latin can be translated as "tick", which gives the name of the plant "castor oil". The fact is that externally its seeds are very similar to ticks. Russian gardeners also call this plant castor, Turkish hemp and paradise tree.
Features of castor oil
Castor oil plant ordinary is a decorative leafy annual. This spreading plant can reach a height of 2-10 meters. Upright bare branched shoots can be painted in red, brown or greenish blue. Next-placed leaf plates with hollow long petioles look very impressive. Large palm-separated leaf plates in their composition include from 5 to 7 blades, while they are painted green. Thanks to its large spectacular foliage, the plant has become so popular among gardeners. But the dim flowers, collected in inflorescences in the form of a brush, have no decorative value. Fruits are boxes, on the surface of which thorns are located, they have an oval-spherical shape, and make the bush even more beautiful, located between the leaves. These fruits contain oval seeds that have a motley mosaic color: brown, pink, light pink against the background of the main color shade, which depends on the variety and may be brown-red, gray or otherwise. This plant is poisonous because it contains ricin pyridine alkaloid. Often cultivated low-grade varieties of castor oil plant with foliage, which has a bright color, for example, castor bean Zanzibar, a variety of Gibson or castor bean Cambodian.
Castor seedlings Growing experience
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Growing castor oil from seeds
Castor oil can be propagated only by seeds, and before seeding, they need to be scarified. According to statistics, out of 10 seeds sown, only 6 or 7 are germinated. To increase the percentage of germination and scarification is done, for this you just need to rub the seeds on an emery cloth and then immerse them in a solution of a growth stimulator for 12 hours (Heteroauxin, Epin, etc.). ) Sowing seeds can be done directly in the open ground in the last April days or in May. However, it is preferable to grow castor oil plant through seedlings, while sowing seeds is carried out in March or the first April days. For planting, it is recommended to use plastic buckets with a volume of 1 liter, which ½ part must be filled with garden soil. The seeds are sown individually, deepening only 20-30 mm. In the event that the seeds have been scarified, the first seedlings will appear after three or four days. If the sticky peel, which is located on the surface of the cotyledonary leaves, does not separate itself, it needs to be helped by using tweezers for this. Otherwise, rot may develop on the seed.
Sowing castor oil plants for seedlings
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The seedling that has appeared is growing very actively.At first, the shoot is pulled out, then the first leaf plate is formed, and it is at this time that the seedlings need to be rearranged in a cool, well-lit place, while it should be noted that the temperature there should not drop below 15 degrees. As the flower grows, you need to gradually add soil to the container and do this until it is full. In the event that the growth of the plant is very fast, then it will have to be transferred to a larger pot. By the time it comes time to transplant seedlings into the open ground, it can have a height of about 100 centimeters.
Planting castor in open ground
What time to land
Castor oil plant differs in that it is completely capricious and undemanding to growing conditions. If you want it to grow very quickly and have an incredibly effective appearance, then for planting you should choose a warm, well-lit place with loose moist soil saturated with nutrients. Plants feel best on chernozem. It will be possible to plant seedlings in open soil only after return frosts have passed, and this time, as a rule, falls on the last days of May or the first - June.
How to plant
Before proceeding to planting, seedlings must be abundantly watered. Then the bushes, together with a lump of earth, are carefully transferred into the prepared pits, which are covered with simple garden soil and compacted well. After this, castor oil must be properly watered.
Sowing of castor oil plants directly into the ground is carried out in the first May days, while it is necessary to make not very deep holes and put 2 or 3 seeds in them.
Attention! The seeds of this plant are characterized by a high content of toxic substances. So, the lethal dose for a child is 6 seeds, and for an adult - 20 seeds. While working with castor oil, experts advise wearing gloves.
Castor Oil Care
Castor oil planted in open ground grows very quickly, and at the same time, no special efforts are required from the gardener. The main thing is to remember that such a flower needs systematic watering. So, every 5 days under a bush you need to pour a bucket of water. Weeding is needed only for young plants, and when they grow up, then weed grass will not interfere with them. Before the inflorescences begin to form, it is recommended to feed the plant with nitrogen-containing fertilizer.
Diseases and pests
Such a plant is highly resistant to harmful insects and diseases. If you planted the seeds directly in the open soil, then young young plants can damage the false stalks, wireworms, caterpillars of the meadow moth, winter scoops, and a sand lark can also settle on them. During flowering, young fruits can damage meadow bugs. Get rid of the tracks is not difficult. In the event that there are few caterpillars, then they can be removed by hand, if there are a lot of them, then an infusion of wormwood will come to the rescue. In order to make it, you need to fill the bucket 1/3 part with chopped wormwood, and then pour so much water into it to make it full. The infusion will be ready in three days, it needs to be filtered and you can start processing the bushes. In the event that next to these flowers sow spicy greens (for example: dill, coriander, garlic, parsley, mint or onions), then the caterpillars will bypass them. It is very difficult to get rid of wireworm and rosemary, so it is better to resort to preventive measures before the plant becomes infected. For this, during planting, each hole should be shed with a not very strong solution of potassium permanganate.
Castor oil can get sick with pink, gray or black rot, cercosporosis, late blight, bacteriosis, phyllosticosis, powdery mildew and other fungal diseases.It is recommended to treat infected bushes with Bordeaux liquid or other similar means.
In the event that you decide to collect seeds from the plants you have grown, then in the summer, mark those bushes that look most impressive, are absolutely healthy and powerful. In the first days of September, the fruits must be cut and folded to dry in a room with good ventilation. Seed boxes dry only in November or December. If the fruits dry very well, then with gentle pressure they should completely crumble, and from them, seeds of 2 or 3 pieces will drop out, which are similar in appearance to beans. Remember that working with castor beans and its seeds must always be in gloves. These seeds must be stored in a place where children or animals cannot reach them. They remain viable for at least four years.
Castor oil planting and care / Castor oil plant growing from seeds
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Types and varieties of castor oil plant with photos and names
It has already been said above that there is only one type of castor oil. However, thanks to the work of breeders, many varieties of such a flower appeared.
Castor bean Zanzibar
This fast-growing annual plant can reach a height of 200 centimeters. He has spectacular racemose inflorescences and large leafy plates. In single plantings, it looks like a rare tropical plant, in connection with this it is planted, as a rule, as a tapeworm. The leaf plates are painted purple-red.
Castor bean Indian or Cambodian
The bush reaches a height of 1.2 m. The trunk is almost black, and the leaf plates are very dark in color. When planting such a variety next to other varieties of castor oil, the bush looks extremely impressive.
The bush can reach a height of 1.5 m, while its leaf plates have a metallic sheen. This variety has undersized forms and varieties with rich red leaf plates.
Castor bean Borbon tree
The height of the bush can reach up to three meters. The dense trunk has a red color. Large green leaf plates are glossy.
Russian breeders managed to develop a decorative variety that became very popular, and it is called Cossack. The bush reaches a height of 200 centimeters, it has a glossy brownish-red trunk, as well as dark green adult leafy plates with reddish veins. Young leaves are colored purple-red and have white dots along the edges of the teeth. Red-bloody flowers have stigmas of a darker shade. Fruits can be purple, red or carmine.
Benefits and harms of castor oil
Despite the fact that castor oil is poisonous and contains a large amount of ricin poison, it is very useful for humans, because valuable essential oil is extracted from it. Castor oil plants are even grown on an industrial scale to produce this oil. The composition of this oil contains unsaturated glyceride, oleic, stearic, linoleic acid and glycerin, as well as micro and macro elements magnesium, iron, calcium and potassium. Castor oil (castor oil) made on the basis of oil extracted from castor oil seeds is used as a laxative in the treatment of enteritis, constipation, colitis and other intestinal diseases associated with inflammation. It is also used externally for bruises, wounds, burns, ulcers, warts and colds. This oil is used in the treatment of varicose veins and hemorrhoids. And it is also used as drops for eye inflammation and in the treatment of gynecological diseases. You can buy such oil in capsules or in small bottles of dark glass. When stored in a refrigerator, it can retain its useful properties for up to several years, while the oil should be in a bottle of dark-colored glass, which has a tightly ground stopper.
Such a plant is also used in the treatment of endometriosis. To do this, you need to take 10 grams of fresh leaves, cut them finely and combine with 200 ml of freshly boiled water. Boil the resulting mixture for 15 to 20 minutes. over a small fire. Then the mixture will need to be infused for several hours, after which it should be filtered. Drink the infusion of 1 large spoon three times in knocking for 14 days.
To treat bronchitis or colds, a tepid castor is used. It should be rubbed several times in knocks into the patient’s chest area, after which the person is well wrapped. Every day, castor should be rubbed into problem areas with warts, burns, wounds, hemorrhoids or varicose veins. In case of eye inflammation, 1 or 2 drops of castor oil should be dripped in the eyes before bedtime for 3-5 days.
Castor has also found wide application in cosmetology. It is used to treat the skin surface of the head and hair, to remove age spots, to get rid of wrinkles and other irregularities of the epidermis. And with the help of such oil they fight with corns and corns.
Several popular recipes
- Eyelash strengthening. Dip the brush into the castor and spread it over the cilia, while keeping the product out of the eyes. 30 minutes later remove unabsorbed oil from the eyelashes with a napkin. To obtain a visible result, it is necessary to carry out such procedures every day for a month.
- Problem skin. Steam the skin surface of the face and spread a warm castor on it. After 60–90 minutes Wipe your face with a paper towel and rinse it with cool water.
- Hair loss. In a small container, combine freshly squeezed lemon juice, castor oil and alcohol taken in a 1: 1: 1 ratio. This composition before bedtime should be rubbed into the skin surface of the head. In the morning, it needs to be washed off with a large amount of tepid water.
- Dandruff. Combine the castor and tincture of calendula in a 1: 1 ratio. Then the mixture must be rubbed into the skin surface of the head. need to wash your hair.
The funds made of castor oil have contraindications. They can not be used by pregnant and breast-feeding women, with exacerbation of chronic diseases (even chronic constipation), with intestinal and uterine bleeding, with individual intolerance, with intestinal obstruction of a mechanical nature. Experts do not recommend the use of such drugs to treat children under 12 years old.