Hydrangea: planting and care in the open ground, types of hydrangea photos and names
A flowering plant such as hydrangea (Hydrangea) is directly related to the hydrangea family. According to various sources, this genus unites 30–80 species of hydrangeas. Such plants are represented by compact trees, vines and shrubs. Most hydrangea species grow in South and East Asia (China, Japan), and this plant can also be found in North America and the Far East. Such a plant was named after the princess of the Holy Roman Empire. Systematic scientists gave the plant the Latin name Hydrangea, which means “vessel with water”. The fact is that it is characterized by great moisture loving. In Japan, this plant is called "adzsai", which means "flower - purple sun." Despite the large number of species, only hydrangea garden, or large-leaved, having a small size is grown at home. Other species and varieties are grown exclusively in gardens.
In wild conditions, hydrangea is represented by three-meter shrubs, not very large trees, as well as vines, which can climb up to thirty-meter height along tree trunks. Also, such hydrangeas can be deciduous or evergreen (depending on the species). In middle latitudes, deciduous species are most preferred. Most often, such a plant has oversized leaflets of large size, they have an oval shape with a point at the apex. The edge of leaf plates is most often serrated, and venation is distinctly visible on their surface. Hydrangea begins to bloom in spring, and finishes only after the onset of frost in the fall. Flowers are collected in large inflorescences, which can have a corymbose, spherical or paniculate shape. The composition of inflorescences includes 2 types of flowers. Some of them are small fertile (fertile), located, as a rule, in the middle part of the inflorescence, while others are large sterile (sterile), which are located along the edge of the inflorescences. There are species with only one fertile flower. In most hydrangeas, flowers are painted white. However, there are species, for example, large-leaved hydrangea, or large-leaved hydrangea, which can have flowers of various colors: cream, white, blue, pink, red and lilac. At the same time, it is interesting that the pH in the soil affects the exact color of the flower. So, for example, if the substrate is neutral, then the flowers will be cream or beige, if alkaline - then pink or lilac, and on acid - blue, because the soil is easily absorbed by aluminum hydrangea. The fruit of this flower is a box with 2-5 cameras, in which there are small seeds. It happens that hydrangea is mistakenly called a flower belonging to a close genus, schizophragmatic, but you should know that petiole hydrangea is nothing more than a schizophragm.
Hydrangea: care, planting, pruning
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How to grow hydrangea in the garden? Here are the basic rules:
- Large-leaf hydrangea can have a different color of flowers. Moreover, their color does not depend on the variety, but on the pH of the soil. So, in acidic soil, the flowers are blue and blue, in neutral - white and beige, and in alkaline soil - lilac or pink. In order for the bush to be spectacular and colorful, experienced gardeners advise changing the acidity separately for each flower.
- This flower is very fond of moisture, in this regard, it must be watered not only abundantly, but also on time.
- Direct rays of the sun are needed. But it is worth considering that the flowers are able to fade under the influence of the scorching rays of the midday sun. In this regard, you need to choose a place for landing, where there would be a slight shade at noon.
- Also, the plant must be cut off on time.
- You can not make a lot of organic fertilizers, because on the overgrown bushes may not appear flowers.
- Hydrangea must be well covered for wintering, even those species that are considered frost-resistant. If one of the bushes freezes, then in most cases it will be able to fully recover during a period of intensive growth.
- Very resistant to diseases and pests.
By seeds, as a rule, it is very easy to propagate species hydrangeas. Also, this method of reproduction is often used by breeders in their work. To grow such a flower from a seed is quite easy, but this is a time-consuming method. Sow seeds in the autumn. To do this, you need to fill the container with loose earthy mixture rich in nutrients, which can be prepared by combining peat and leaf soil with river sand in a ratio of 2: 4: 1. Seeds sown on the surface of the substrate must be sprinkled with a thin layer of soil, and then watered with a spray gun. Then the container must be covered from above with a transparent film or glass, while the shelter needs to be removed several times in knocking so that the soil is ventilated. It should also be noted that the soil should be slightly moist at all times. The optimum temperature is from 14 to 20 degrees. After the first seedlings appear, the shelter must be removed for good. Pick-up must be done 2 times. The first time in the stage of development of cotyledon lobes, and the second in the first month of spring. In this case, the second time a dive plant is to take small pots for each of them (diameter 7 centimeters). After you transplant the young plantlets for the second time, they need to start hardening. To do this, in the summer, flowers are taken outside and they choose a place that is protected from direct sunlight, gusts of wind, drafts and precipitation. In the evening, hydrangeas are returned to the room. For 2 years, hydrangea must be grown indoors, and in winter it is kept in a rather cool and bright room, and in the summer it is transferred to the street. In this case, it is imperative to break off all the buds, since they will take a lot of energy from a still young plant.
After 2 years at the very beginning of the spring period (in areas with a cold climate - in the fall), the grown flowers are transplanted into open soil, immediately to a permanent place. When choosing a suitable place, do not forget that all species are photophilous and need direct sunlight. However, there are several species (groundcover, Sargent, rough and tree-like) that feel great in partial shade. The soil should be loose, enriched with organic matter, neutral or slightly acidic. Alkaline soil can be acidified by taking horse peat or Acid Plus acidifier. Near these flowers, it is not recommended to plant trees or shrubs that have a surface root system, since after some time these plants will fight with each other for water and useful substances.
First of all, it is necessary to dig a hole, while its size should be 2 times the volume of the root system of the seedling along with a lump of earth pulled out. Then, organic and mineral fertilizers, as well as peat, should be added to the hole, which should be mixed with the ground. Then the seedling, taken out together with a lump of earth, needs to be thoroughly shaken off the soil and the roots should be leveled. Then it is lowered into a hole, which is covered with a mixture of compost and soil. At the same time, the root system needs to rise quite a bit above the soil surface. Then the soil should be compacted, water the bush and fill the area with mulch (bark or needles).
Outdoor hydrangea care
Garden hydrangeas care pruning and wintering. Consultant LI Kalashnikova
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Basic care rules
It is not difficult to take care of such a plant grown in open ground, however, you must do this correctly. Of great importance for the normal development of hydrangea is proper watering. So, in hot weather, it needs to be watered 2 times in 7 days, while 3-5 adult buckets should be poured onto 1 adult bush with tepid and necessarily settled water. In the case when the plot contains mulch in the form of peat, watering can be reduced.
In order to get more oxygen to the roots, you need to loosen the surface of the soil around the plant several times during the season to a depth of about 5 centimeters. Also, you need to timely pick off the stems that have already faded.
In order to achieve the most abundant flowering, you need to feed such a flower at least 2 times a year. This must be done before the plant begins to bloom and after it fades. At the very beginning of the spring period, a urea solution (2 g per 1 liter of water) is used to top up hydrangea. In this case, 1 liter will need 30 liters of this solution. When the plant fades, a complex mineral fertilizer should be used to feed it. During the summer period, experts advise using slurry as a top dressing. However, do not overdo it, because overfed hydrangeas have very large inflorescences that can break rather fragile branches. To avoid this, you can tie a bush.
It should be trimmed those bushes that are older than 3-4 years. Species blooming on the stems of the current year should be pruned at the very beginning of the spring period, before the buds begin to open, and also before the sap flow begins, otherwise the plant may expire with juice, which will lead to its death. However, after pruning very early, cuttings cannot be rooted. In this regard, pruning should be carried out at a time when the kidneys begin to look alive and slightly swollen. The hydrangea tree-like is the first to awaken, so it must be cut first. She has very long stems trimmed at a height of 3-4 kidneys. After that, the resulting branch can be divided into cuttings. Panicled hydrangea requires more careful pruning. So, last year's stems must be shortened by 1/3, but viable cuttings are obtained from such segments. Strong leaf pruning hydrangea is not necessary. So, in the springtime, only every 4th stem is cut off, especially if it grows inside the bush. And also it is necessary to remove the dried and damaged branches.
Pruning hydrangea in the fall. sadovymir.ru
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Hydrangea propagation by cuttings
Propagation of hydrangea by cuttings. Site "Garden World"
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After trimming hydrangea, you will have a large number of segments of stems, and you can make cuttings from them. On each of the cuttings should be 2 nodes. In this case, the cut above the node located at the top should be straight, and under that at the bottom - oblique. In this case, 2-3 cm should be retreated from the node, and then a cut should be made. Fill the greenhouse container with a mixture of peat and sand and stick the stalk to a depth of 3 centimeters, while watering well. After this, the greenhouse on top should be covered with plastic film "house". The cuttings must be systematically moistened with a spray gun so that the soil is always slightly moist. After complete rooting, the cuttings should be planted in open soil in a permanent place. Before winter, they should have time to get stronger.
Hydrangea after flowering
A faded plant must be prepared for wintering. Seedlings that are grown in containers must be transferred to the room. For flowers growing in open ground, wilted flowers must be cut off, because if wet from rain and snow, they will become very heavy and can break branches.And it will also be necessary to huddle the base of the bushes high enough, to fill the surface of the soil around them with a layer of mulch, which will help protect the root system from freezing. The most frost-resistant species are ground cover and panicled. The stems of such plants before the onset of the autumn period are completely lignified, which helps them easier to tolerate frosts, even if they are not covered (when grown in areas with mild winters). Also, do not cover the winter hydrangea tree-like.
Preparing hydrangea for the winter
A rather warm and snowy winter period allows even very loving species to winter without shelter (serrate and large-leaved hydrangea). However, it should be borne in mind that it will be frosty or warm in winter, no one knows for sure how or how much snow will fall. It is better to play it safe and, despite the fact that weather forecasters promise a warm winter, prepare the plants for wintering, as it should. Because if the weather forecast is wrong, then unprepared for wintering plants can die.
What time is better to cover this flower and how to do it? As a rule, this procedure is carried out in October, after the first frost has passed. If the bushes are young, then they should be covered to the brim with dry soil. The grown bushes must be pressed to the soil surface and covered with roofing material or lutrasil. They must be fixed with bricks, since such a shelter can be carried away by the wind. On older bushes need to spend more effort. The bush must be carefully tied and then covered with spanbond or lutrasil. After that, around the bush, you should create a metal frame from the grid, which should have a cylindrical shape. At the same time, the walls of the structure should be 20-25 centimeters away from the bush, and they should also rise 10 centimeters above it. Empty space in the structure should be filled with dry leaves. In spring (April), the grid with leaflets can be removed, but spanbond is removed only after the threat of frost has passed.
Hydrangea in winter
You yourself can decide whether to shelter these flowers for you or not. The above options are ideal for frosty winters with scanty snow cover. In the event that in the place where you live a very mild winter, then you can cover hydrangea quite easily. And if you grow winter-hardy species, then you can not cover them at all. However, if the winters where you live are often frosty, it is better to take care of a shelter for hydrangea in the autumn and then you will be sure that it can survive even severe frosts.
Types of hydrangea photos and names
If you are thinking about decorating your garden with hydrangea, then first of all you should pay attention to the features of various types of this plant. Then you can choose exactly the types that will be best suited for your garden. It is also important to know how each species needs to be looked after. For example, tree-like or large-leaved hydrangea must be prepared for wintering and trimmed somewhat differently than panicled hydrangea. If you know a lot about the rules for caring for such plants, then caring for them will not be difficult.
Tree Hydrangea (Hydrangea arborescens)
This variety is very popular among gardeners living in mid-latitudes. This plant is presented in the form of shrubs. Its height can vary from 100 to 300 centimeters. Inflorescences grow on the tops of annual stems. When the flowers just begin to open, they have a light green color, after they are fully opened, they change their color to cream or white. The most popular varieties are: "Invisible Spirit" - the flowers have a pink color; "Sterilis" - inflorescences are painted white, while this plant is very blooming; "Annabelle" and "Grandiflora" - have very large inflorescences painted in pure white (note that panicle hydrangea has varieties with exactly the same names).
Panicle Hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata)
Under natural conditions, such a plant has the form of a tree or shrub, the height of which can vary from 2 to 5 m. This species is considered one of the most popular among gardeners.Without a transplant in the same place, this type of hydrangea is able to grow and develop normally for more than 40 years. The stems of this plant are lignified in a relatively short time, which is why it is considered winter-hardy. Inflorescences grow in the upper parts of the stems of this year, while flowering is distinguished by its abundance. However, the buds formed in the last June days are opened only in August or September. Inflorescences in this type of flower have a pyramidal shape. When only the flowers begin to open, they have a pale green color, and after full opening they become white. At the end of the summer period, they become light pink, and then brick. When the flowering period begins to end, then the flowers again become light green. The most popular varieties are Grandiflora, Kuishu, Vanilla Freyz and Tardiva.
Leafy hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla)
Or garden - it is often cultivated in the garden. However, individual varieties can be grown in containers indoors or on the terrace. Dense leaflets have a rich green color. The stems of this year are grassy, which is why the bush has not very high cold resistance. It is believed that inflorescences appear on last year's stems, as the buds for their growth are laid in the autumn, and they begin to grow in the spring. As a rule, inflorescences have a kalidovidny, umbrella shape, it is also called hemispherical or Japanese. The color of flowers depends on the pH of the soil. Quite recently appeared interesting varieties: “Endless Summer” - in acidic soil - blue color, in neutral - lilac; "Renata Steinger" - blue; "Expansion" and "Romance" - have double flowers.
Hydrangea oak (Hydrangea quercifolia)
It has low frost resistance and needs good insulation for the winter. It blooms very luxuriantly and has unusually attractive leaves. It has a height of about 2 m. The length of panicle-shaped inflorescences is from 10 to 30 centimeters. Flowering begins in June – July, and at the beginning the flowers are white, and then they turn purple.
Ground Hydrangea (Hydrangea heteromalla)
Or hydrangea with different roots - a winter-hardy species. Under natural conditions, it can reach a height of 200–300 centimeters. Often used for the formation of the standard form. The length of the dark green leaves is about 20 centimeters. The front side of them is smooth, and the wrong side has pubescence. The loose inflorescences of the corymbose form are initially white, and then at the end of flowering turn pink. Flowering begins in the last June days or the first July. The most popular groundcover variety is Bretschneider, which blooms profusely with fairly large inflorescences of milky white color.
Also, gardeners grow hydrangea: ash, serrate, radiant, rough, Sargent. And they also grow a climbing type petiolate hydrangea, but as mentioned above, this is not hydrangea.
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