Kandyk (erythronium): planting and care in the open ground, types and varieties
The herbaceous perennial kandyk plant, also called erythronium (Erythronium), is a member of the Liliaceae family. This plant in nature can be found in Europe, Manchuria, North America, South Siberia and Japan. In the writings of Dioscorides, one can find a mention of kandyka, which is an early spring ephemeroid. Karl Linney gave this genus a Latin name, and it is formed from the Greek name of one of the species of Kandyk. And the name “kandyk” comes from the Turkic word, translated meaning “dog’s tooth”. Species such as Japanese, Caucasian, and Siberian Kandyk are endangered, so they are listed in the Red Book. This genus unites 29 species, some of which are cultivated by gardeners.
The kandyk plant most often has a height of 0.1 to 0.3 m, in rare cases it can reach 0.6 m. The shape of the annual bulb is ovoid-cylindrical. At the base of the peduncle there are two petiolar oppositely located leaf plates, the shape of which is elongated-lanceolate, most often there are a large number of spots of brown color on their surface, but there are also plain green. At the top of the peduncle, a flower grows with a drooping large perianth, it consists of 6 leaves of white, yellow or purple-pink color. In some cases, several flowers grow on the arrow. Kandyk blooms in the last days of April or the first - in May. The fruit is an egg-shaped box in which there are few seeds.
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Erythronium planting in open ground
What time to plant
Erythronium, which begins to bloom in the early days of April, is recommended to be planted in a shaded place in the northern part of the garden area under the lace crowns of shrubs and trees. Since the bushes are blooming at a time when there is still no foliage on the bushes and trees, they are quite enough sunlight. Those species that bloom in the last days of April should be planted in a sunny area. If everything is done correctly, the later varieties will begin to bloom earlier, and the early ones, on the contrary, later.
The soil suitable for planting should be peaty, moist, light and slightly acidic, its approximate composition: sheet soil, coarse sand and humus. Site preparation should be done half a month before planting; for this, 200 grams of bone meal, 30 grams of potassium nitrate, 100 grams of crushed chalk and 150 grams of superphosphate per 1 square meter of the plot should be added to the soil.
Kandyk propagated by seeds, as well as children. All American species can be propagated only by seed method, in addition to the multi-pedigree. Seed collection is carried out in June, and you need to be very careful, because after full ripening, the bolls open, and their contents appear on the surface of the plot, after which they can be pecked by birds or carried away by ants. Experienced gardeners recommend cutting a little unripe boxes, after which they are placed for ripening in a well-ventilated, dry room. Sowing seeds and planting bulbs in open soil is carried out in the last summer weeks.
Before you begin sowing kandyka, you need to make grooves with a depth of 30 mm, and the distance between them should be about 100 mm. Then, the ripened seeds are placed in the prepared grooves, while a distance of 50 mm should be observed between them. Then the seeds need to be repaired. Crops need abundant watering. The site will need to be covered only when weather forecasters promise that the winter will be frosty and not snowy. The first seedlings should appear in spring, while in the last days of April their height should reach at least 40 mm. If the seedlings are not so high, then this means that they lack nutrients and water.At the end of the first season, the diameter of the bulbs is 40 mm, and at the end of the second - about 70 mm. And during the third season, their shape becomes cylindrical, after which they themselves are buried in the ground by 70–100 mm, and in diameter they reach 80 mm. For the first time, bushes grown from seeds bloom 4–5 years after the appearance of seedlings.
It is possible to sow seeds in spring time, but they need preliminary stratification. For this, the seed must be placed on the shelf of the refrigerator designed for vegetables for 8-12 weeks, but first they need to be poured into a bag made of polyethylene, which should be filled with moistened peat or sand.
As mentioned above, such flowers can be grown from bulbs. Moreover, each species has its own characteristics of vegetative propagation. Bulbs of American species should be buried in the soil by 16–20 centimeters, while the distance between them should be at least 15 centimeters. And Asian-European species need to be buried in the ground by 10-15 centimeters, and the distance between them must also be left at least 15 centimeters. When the bulbs are planted, the site must be covered with a layer of mulch, they also need abundant watering.
Kandyk Care in the Garden
Growing kandyk in your garden is relatively easy. Such a culture is watered quite rarely. And if you want to reduce the number of weeds and loosening, then the surface of the site should be covered with a layer of mulch.
How to water and feed
The beginning of the intensive growth of this flower occurs in early spring. At this time, after the snow cover has melted, the ground contains a large amount of melt water. In this regard, it will be necessary to water the kandyk only in May, and then if there is very little rain in the spring. After the bushes are watered or the rain passes, you need to systematically loosen the surface of the soil around them, while tearing out all the weed grass.
In the first year, such flowers do not need to be fed, because they need enough nutrients that were introduced into the ground before sowing seeds or before planting bulbs. In subsequent seasons, it will only be necessary to fill the surface of the plot with a layer of mulch (leaf humus or peat). Also, to feed this crop, you can use mineral fertilizers for decorative flowering plants.
How to transplant and propagate
For 4 or 5 years of growth in one place, the bush turns into a "nest", so it will be necessary to transplant it. Transplanting kandyk, it is propagated by dividing the bulbs. It is recommended to carry out this procedure in July or August, at which time a period of rest is observed in kandyk. By the time of transplantation, the leaves of the bushes should turn yellow, while the bulbs must have time to regain their energy spent on flowering. Separated, from the bulbs extracted from the ground, the children should be put in the grooves prepared in advance in the same way as described in detail above. At the same time, be sure to sprinkle the fault points with coal powder. It should be noted that the bulbs can not be in the air for a long time, because due to the lack of coverts, they almost immediately begin to dry out. In the case when the bulbs need to be stored, then for this they take a box, which is filled with moist sphagnum, sand or peat, in which they are buried.
About all the features of generative (seed) reproduction of such a plant can be read above.
Erythronium in winter
Kandyk has a fairly high frost resistance, so when grown in the garden, it can winter in open soil. But if there is a frosty and little snowy winter, then the kandyka will need shelter, for this the site is covered with a fairly thick layer of spruce branches or dried leaves. It is only necessary to remove the shelter at the beginning of the spring period, after the snow cover has melted.
Diseases and pests
Kandyk is very resistant to disease.Among the pests, the most dangerous for him are moles, mice and bears. Experienced gardeners recommend planting these flowers in various places in the garden, this will prevent the death of all copies. To get rid of pests, you need to make traps. To catch a bear, on the site it is necessary to make a hole in which fresh manure is laid, in this pest it prefers to lay eggs. The pits on top must be covered with slate or board, after a while you need to check the bait and, if necessary, destroy it along with the bears. Get rid of rodents will help bait with a special poison.
Types and varieties of kandyk (erythronium) with photos and names
Below will be described those types and varieties of kandyka that are most popular with gardeners.
Erythronium american (Erythronium americanum = Erythronium angustatum = Erythronium bracteatum)
Under natural conditions, this species is found in the temperate and subtropical zones of the eastern as well as central regions of the USA and Canada. They can be found in the mountains at an altitude of up to 1,500 meters above sea level. Bulb shape is ovoid. The length of the lanceolate or oblong leaf plates is about 20 centimeters, and their width is about 5 centimeters, their surface is strewn with spots of brown color. The flower stalk height is about 0.3 m. The color of tepals is saturated yellow, in some cases with a purple tint.
Erythronium whitish (Erythronium albidum)
Under natural conditions, this species can be found in the central regions of Canada and the United States of America. Externally, this plant is similar to American erythronium. There are no lobes at the base of the tepals, and their color may be pink, purple, white or blue.
Erythronium multifoot (Erythronium multiscapoideum = Erythronium hartwegii)
This species prefers to grow in bright forests, and also on the moist rocks of the subtropical and warm temperate zones of the southwestern United States of America. Stolons form at the base of the oblong-ovoid bulb. On the surface of the leaf plates of the reverse lanceolate form, there are many spots. Yellow-cream flowers located on long pedicels have an orange base, which in the process of wilting changes to pink. At the peduncle, 1-3 flowers grow.
Erythronium Henderson (Erythronium hendersonii)
This species comes from light forests and dry meadows of Oregon. It came to the territory of Europe in 1887. An elongated Lukovichka has a short rhizome. On the leaf plates there are specks of a dark brown color. The height of the shoot is 10-30 centimeters; 1-3 flower of pale purple color with a base of almost black color grows on it. The color of the stamens is purple, and the anthers are brownish.
Erythronium mountain (Erythronium montanum)
In nature, this species is found in the northwestern United States, while it prefers to grow in alpine meadows. The narrow bulb has an oblong shape. The stem height is about 0.45 m. On the winged petioles are oblong ovate leaf plates, they sharply taper to the base. On the arrow grows from one to several flowers of a pale pink or white color, while the base of the bracts is colored orange.
Kandyk lemon yellow (Erythronium citrinum)
This species grows in a temperate zone in the western United States, while it can only be found in mountain forests. There are spots on the surface of blunt broad-lanceolate leaf plates, and they also have short petioles. The top of the plates is also short and pointed. The stem height is about 10–20 centimeters; 1–9 yellow-lemon flowers grow on it; tepals with an orange base are strongly bent. As the flowers wither, the tips of such leaves turn pink.
Erythronium californian (Erythronium californicum)
This species is found in nature in light forests in California.On winged petioles there are dull oblong leaf plates, there are spots on their surface, and their length reaches 10 centimeters. The height of the stem is about 0.35 m; it grows from one to several flowers. In tepals of white-cream color, the base is orange. This species has a garden form with two-tone flowers: white and yellow-cream color. The following hybrids are most popular with gardeners:
- White Beauty. Large snow-white flowers in the middle have a dark brown ring. Wrapped tepals in shape resemble a Chinese pagoda.
- Harvington Snowhouse. In large flowers, creamy perianth leaves have a yellow-lemon base.
Large Kandyk (Erythronium grandiflorum)
In nature, the species is found in the steppe regions of the USA and Canada, and he prefers to grow on mountain slopes and in forests. Bulb is on a short rhizome. The stem height varies from 0.3 to 0.6 m. Oblong lanceolate leaf plates, smoothly passing into the petiole, have a length of about 0.2 m, their color is solid green. 1–6 flowers grow on the stem; tepals are yellow-golden in color, and their base is more pale. This species has varieties and varieties:
- large-flowered white - the color of flowers is snowy white;
- large-flowered golden - anthers of flowers are yellow;
- large-flowered Nuttalla - flowers have red anthers;
- large-flowered pale - in this variety, anthers are painted white;
- Bianca - color of flowers is white;
- Rubens - flowers are painted in pink-red.
Erythronium oregonum (Erythronium oregonum), or erythronium unfolded or wrapped (Erythronium revolutum)
In nature, such a species can be found in the subtropical zone and the non-moral region of the Pacific coast of the United States and Canada. The height of the stem can vary from 0.1 to 0.4 m. Spotted leaf plates have an oblong, lanceolate shape, they taper to the petiole. The creamy white tepals are heavily wrapped, and at the base they are colored yellow, which is closer to the end of flowering to purple. The color of the anthers is white. This species differs from others in greater moisture lovingness. Popular forms:
- wrapped white flowered - flowers are white with a slight pale green tint, the base of the tepals is brown;
- wrapped johnson - the color of the flowers is dark pink, brown spots are on the surface of the green glossy leaf plates;
- early wrapped - white-cream flowers have an orange base; mahogany spots are on the surface of green leafy plates.
Erythronium tuolumnense (Erythronium tuolumnense)
In nature, the species is found only in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. The height of the bush is 0.3–0.4 m. Long-leaved monophonic green color leaf plates have a reverse lanceolate or lanceolate shape and a length of about 0.3 m. On the stem there are from one to several flowers of yellow-golden color, their base is yellowish-green. Popular varieties:
- Pagoda. The color of flowers is yellow-lemon.
- Congo. This hybrid is created using the turned away kandyka and the Tuolumni kandyka. The flowers are painted sulfur yellow. On the inside of the perianth there is a brown ring, and on the surface of the leaves there are streaks of brownish-red color.
Siberian erythronium (Erythronium sibiricum = Erythronium dens-canis var. Sibiricum)
In the wild, such a plant can be found in southern Siberia and Mongolia, while it prefers to grow along the edges of coniferous and mixed forests of Altai and Sayan. The egg-shaped cylindrical white bulb in this species is very fragile, its shape is similar to the dog's fang. The height of the stem varies from 0.12 to 0.35 m, there is a pair of oppositely arranged green elliptical leaf plates on it, they are pointed to the apex, on their surface there is a marbled pattern of brown-red color. A drooping flower grows at the top of the stem, reaching 80 mm across, the tepals are bent to the sides, they are painted white or pink-purple. The base of the leaves is yellowish, it is covered with small dots of dark color. The pistil of the flower is painted white, and the anthers are yellow-golden.There are varieties with brown or almost brown leaf plates and a thin green border, but after a while the pattern disappears.
Erythronium Caucasian (Erythronium caucasicum)
This species is endemic to Western Transcaucasia, where it is found in mountain forests. The shape of the bulb is oblong or ovoid-cylindrical. The height of the stem is about 0.25 m. On the surface of the bluish oblong-ovate leaf plates there are specks, petioles of them are stalk-bearing. The base of the tepals is yellowish or white. The inner surface of these leaflets is pale yellow, and the outer is purplish-orange. This species has low resistance to frost, so for the winter the bushes must be covered.
Erythronium european (Erythronium dens-canis), or canine tooth (Erythronium maculatum)
This flower prefers to grow in shrubs and mountain deciduous forests in the subtropics and a temperate zone in Europe (found in the western regions of Ukraine), in the Alps it can be met at an altitude of up to 1.7 thousand meters above sea level. The color and shape of the bulb is similar to that of a dog's fang. The height of the pale pink stem is 0.1–0.3 m. The green broad-lanceolate leaflets taper to the grooved petioles, they grow at the base of the stem, and spots of purple color are on their surface. 1 drooping flower grows on the stem, pointed tepals, bent back, are bent back, painted in purple, pink, less often white. On short stamens there are anthers of dark blue almost black color. This species is characterized by frost resistance and high decorativeness, cultivating it since 1570. There are 2 varieties:
- niveum - color of flowers is snow-white;
- longifolium (long-leaved form) - its flowers are larger than those of the main species, and the leaf plates are pointed and long.
The following varieties are most popular:
- Charmer. This variety was developed by Tunbergen in 1960. At the base of the flower is a large brown spot. Perianth color lavender. There are brown marks on the surface of the foliage.
- Franc Hall. The outer surface of the perianth is monochromatic purple, and on the inside there are greenish-bronze spots. The central part of the flower is green-yellow.
- Layak Wonder. In this cultivar, the flowers are purple, at the base of the tepals there is a chocolate ring on the inner surface, and a brown one on the outside.
- Pink Perfection. This early variety has a deep pink perianth.
- Snowflake. Flowers have such a garden-shaped snow-white color.
- Rose queen. This variety is relatively rare. It is very effective and has pink flowers.
- White splendor. This variety was bred by Tubergen in 1961. The flowers are white, and the perianth leaves have a brown-red spot at the base.
Erythronium japanese (Erythronium japonicum)
In nature, the species can be found on the Kuril Islands, in Korea, on Sakhalin and in Japan. This species is highly decorative. Bulb shape is cylindrical lanceolate. Stem height about 0.3 m. Petiole leaflets narrow and oblong, in length they reach about 12 centimeters. On the stem flaunts 1 drooping purple-pink flower.
Erythronium hybrid (Erythronium hybridum)
Here are collected varieties that were obtained by crossing different varieties and types of kandyka. Popular varieties:
- White king. In snow-white flowers, the middle of the lemon color, there is also a faint dotted pale red border. The color of the leaf blades is deep green.
- Scarlet. Saturated raspberry flowers have a white ring, and inside is a ring consisting of dots of raspberry color. The central part of the flower is pale yellow. On the surface of the brown leaf plates there are green dots, the upper part of them is also green.
- White Fang. The flowers are white with a pale yellow center, in diameter they reach about 60 mm. Peduncle and foliage are green.
- Harmony. The flowers in diameter reach about 80 mm: the leaves closer to the base are white and pink at the tips, the central part is yellowish and edged with red dots. On the surface of green young leafy plates there is a brown pattern, which disappears over time.
- Olga. On the surface of pink-lilac flowers there are dots of a dark pink color, on the tips of the lobes there is a white border. A green stripe runs along the edge of the green-brown leaf plates.
Properties of kandyka: harm and benefit
Useful properties of kandyka
Kandyk refers to honey plants. The composition of the flower nectar includes glucose, enzymes, vitamin E, fructose, minerals, acids and other substances needed by the human body. Honey of such a plant has a delicate smell and valuable medicinal properties, since it contains enzymes, vitamins and emollients. Such honey is used in the treatment of fever, cough, and it also lowers the temperature. On the basis of this honey, cosmetology makes antiseptic honey water that does not dry the epidermis.
In alternative medicine, kandyk bulbs are quite popular, as they contain higher alcohols and antispasmodics. With fresh bulbs, cramps can be prevented even with epilepsy.
Foliage has a general strengthening effect, it can stop the aging process, and it is also used to improve potency in men. It also contains a large amount of dietary fiber, vitamins, enzymes and minerals. Foliage is eaten fresh and also pickled. A decoction made from the herbs of this plant is used to rinse the hair to strengthen the hair follicles.
Kandyk pollen can cause hay fever in a person predisposed to allergic reactions. If you were near such a flower, and your sinuses were swollen, a runny nose and a rash appeared, then you should seek medical help as soon as possible. If you eat a lot of kandyka honey, it can also cause health problems. The fact is that it helps to increase appetite and increase blood sugar. Such a product should not be consumed by people suffering from diabetes mellitus, and also sensitive to glucose. The regular use of parts of such a plant or honey can cause the development of hypervitaminosis, especially if at the same time a pharmacy multivitamin or dietary supplement containing vitamins is taken. Even a completely healthy person is advised to consult a specialist before using kandyka to strengthen the body.