Astilba flower: planting and care in the open ground, varieties with photos and names
Astilbe belongs to the genus of perennial herbaceous plants of the Saxifraga family. According to various sources, this genus unites 18–40 species. The plant was given the name of Lord Hamilton by the Scottish nerd, “a” means “without,” and “stilbe” means “brilliance.” He meant that the plant had non-shiny, dull leaf plates. The birthplace of such a plant is North America, East Asia and the Japanese islands. Astilba prefers to grow along the banks of streams, in deciduous forests, as well as in those places where high humidity is observed in the summer. The plant came to European countries from Japan in the late 18th or early 19th century. It was introduced by von Siebold and Karl Tunberg, who were hunters of outlandish plants. Since that time, it has gained great popularity as an ideal plant for shady gardens.
Features of astilbe
This plant is rhizome. Before winter, part of the astilbe, located above the surface of the soil, dies. The height of erect shoots depends on the species and variety and can vary from 8 to 200 centimeters. Long-leaf leaf plates are found both simple, and twice or thrice pinnate, the serrated edge. Their color is greenish red or dark green. The woody rhizome can be dense or loose (depending on the species). At the top of the rhizome, new buds appear annually, with the gradual dying of the lower part. The annual vertical growth is approximately 3-5 centimeters, in connection with this, in autumn, it is recommended to sprinkle with fertile soil that part of the rhizome that has been exposed.
Openwork small flowers are collected in apical inflorescences. They can be painted in red, pink, white, lilac and purple. Flowering can begin from June to August. The form of inflorescences is rhombic, paniculate, as well as pyramidal. Those species that have drooping inflorescences are especially effective. The fruit is represented by a box. All species are divided by flowering time into:
- early - last days of June, first - July;
- medium - July;
- late - August.
Astilba: growing, care, reproduction
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Varieties of astilbe with photos and names
Only 10 to 12 types of astilbe are cultivated. But many hybrid varieties of this plant were born thanks to breeders. Today, there are approximately 200 varieties. The most popular hybrid groups are: Arends (Arendsii Hybrida), Japanese hybrids (Japonica Hybrida), Chinese astilbe (Astilbe Chinensis) and its varieties, and leaf Astilbe (Astilbe simplicifolia).
It includes 40 species that were born thanks to the selection of the main species - the astilbe of David, with other species. Spreading thick bushes can reach meter height. Their shape can be pyramidal or spherical, leaf plates are dark green. The final inflorescences can be painted in lilac, pink, white or red. Flowering lasts longer than in other species from July to August for 30–40 days. It has been cultivated since 1907. G. Arends created his best varieties. The most popular are the astilbe Gloria, Diamond, Weiss Gloria, Rubin, Glut, etc. A bush of Diamant can reach 0.9 meters in height, and Weiss Gloria, Amethyst and Rubin - 0.8 meters. The Weiss inflorescences of Gloria and Gloria are diamond-shaped, and Gluta, Diamond and Rubin are panicled.
The height of the bush can vary from 100 to 110 centimeters. Basal leaf plates have long petioles and a large size, and small glossy openwork stem leaves have short petioles. The length of dense inflorescences is from 30 to 35 centimeters. The color of small flowers, as a rule, is lilac, but white and pink are found. Grown since 1859. There are forms of undersized (var.pumila hort.), their height is 15–25 centimeters, as well as forms with cone-shaped inflorescences var. Taquetii. Such plants feel great in well-lit areas. The most effective varieties are: Astilbe chinensis taquetii "Purpurlanze" - an amazing lilac color, Astilbe chinensis "Vision in Pink" - a pink color, Astilbe chinensis (Pumila Hybrida) "Vision in Red" - dark purple.
The height of compact bushes does not exceed 0.8 meters. Glossy sheet plates are most often ornamental. White or pink flowers are collected in paniculate inflorescences. Flowering begins earlier than in other species, while even dried inflorescences will be a wonderful decoration of the garden and last until late autumn. Cultivated since 1837. The creator of the first varieties is G. Arends. Modern varieties are resistant to cold, and they also take root perfectly. The most popular are: Deutschland (Astilbe japonica Rheinland) - white, Rhineland (Astilbe japonica Rheinland) - with beautiful pink flowers, Europe (Astilbe japonica Europe) - an elegant plant with light lilac flowers, Montgomery (Astilbe japonica Montgomery) - its panicled inflorescences are painted in burgundy or saturated red.
Leaf hybrids (Hybrida) and Thunberg hybrids (Thunbergii Hybrida) react extremely negatively to low humidity and heat. The height of the bushes can vary from 20 to 50 centimeters. Very beautiful inflorescences give the plant airiness. The most spectacular varieties: Praecox Alba - with loose inflorescences of white color, Bronze Elegans - the variety got its name due to leaf plates of bronze color with pale pink inflorescences, Straussenfeder - bush height 0.9 m, and inflorescences of coral color, Professor van der Wielen - has white inflorescences and belongs to the Thunberg hybrids.
Growing astilba from seeds
Astilba can be propagated with the help of seeds, as well as divide the bush or separate the rhizome with a kidney. Florists with little experience, most often resort to vegetative methods of reproduction. However, only the seed propagation method allows the creation of new varieties. Sowing seeds produced in March. For landing, you will need a wide tank, which should be 15 centimeters high. It is filled with a mixture, which includes sand and peat, taken in equal parts. A layer of snow of centimeter thickness is poured over the soil. In the event that there is no snow on the street, you can dial it in the freezer of your refrigerator. Seeds are distributed directly on the surface of the snow, which melts, carries them along deep into the substrate. Next, the seeds will need to be stratified. To do this, when the snow has completely melted, the container must be placed in a bag, which should be transparent, and then put on the shelf of the refrigerator. There, the container should remain until the seedlings appear (about 3 weeks). Then the container is cleaned in a well-lit place with a temperature of 18 to 22 degrees. It is necessary to water the plant very carefully, otherwise they will die. So, pouring water should be exclusively under the root, and you can inject it from the syringe directly into the substrate. After the appearance of 2 or 3 real leaf plates in the plants, they need to be planted in separate pots.
Early purchase of plants. Site "Garden World"
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Growing an astilbe is quite simple, the main thing is to properly care for it. Such a plant is planted in open ground in May or June. A suitable site should be located on the north side of the building, and it should be shaded by bushes or trees. It should be noted that some of the varieties can grow in sunny areas, while their flowering will be distinguished by its abundance, but it does not last very long. It is great if you can place an astilbe in the immediate vicinity of a pool or a fountain. Loamy soil is perfect, while groundwater should lie fairly close to the soil surface. Suitable acidity is pH 5.5-6.5. Astilba is recommended to land with the hosts. The fact is that hosts do not allow the soil to dry out quickly and get too hot on hot days.
Before doing the landing, you need to prepare the site. To do this, dig up the soil and remove all weed grass along with the roots.Then, rotted manure, compost or rotted peat (1 square meter 2 buckets of fertilizer) are introduced into the soil. The depth and width of the landing pit varies from 20 to 30 centimeters, while a distance of 30 centimeters must be maintained between the bushes. In each hole pour ½ cup of wood ash, as well as 1 large spoon of mineral fertilizer. After this, the pits should be well watered. When planting, the plant is placed in such a way that its growth bud is buried in the soil by at least 4-5 centimeters. Pour the required amount of soil into the hole and ram it. Then the soil surface is sprinkled with a layer of mulch (peat or humus), the thickness of which is from 3 to 5 centimeters.
Features of gardening
It should be remembered that the astilbe has one feature, namely, its rhizome gradually grows upward, while its lower part dies over time. This means that after some time the bush will not be able to eat, so it is so important to spud it in time. Keep the soil dry. Such a plant needs regular watering. However, mulching can help make watering rarer and save you from weed grass, as well as from frequent loosening of the soil surface, and still prevent the root system from overheating. The abundance of watering varies from medium to high, and this directly depends on the species, as well as the variety of the bush. But at the same time, we must remember that when the formation of inflorescences occurs, the bush should be watered systematically and abundantly. In the dry period, watering is carried out 2 times a day, or rather, in the morning and in the evening.
In one place, the flower can be grown from 5 to 7 years. But in those cases, if Astilbe is provided with proper and good care, as well as fed her in a timely manner, she will be able to do without transplantation for up to 20 years. An approximate plan for feeding astilba:
- In spring, nitrogen-containing fertilizers must be added to the soil. For this, humus is introduced during hilling.
- In mid-June, the plant needs potash fertilizer. To do this, 500 ml of a solution consisting of a bucket of water and 2 large spoons of potassium nitrate is taken per 1 bush.
- When flowering ends, phosphorus-containing fertilizer will be required. For 1 bush, 20 grams of superphosphate is taken.
When the plant is fed, the soil surface must be loosened and mulched.
In such an introduced plant, the main pests remained in the places where it comes from. In the middle latitudes, gall and strawberry nematodes, as well as slobbery pennies, can harm him. At the same time, pennies prefer to settle in leaf sinuses. Over time, salivary foamy secretions form in them, while inside them are cicadas. Leaf plates begin to wrinkle and specks of yellow color appear on them. The infected bush partially or completely fades. In order to exterminate such a pest, you can use the confidor, horn, karbofos or actar.
Strawberry nematode settles on the leaf plates, buds and flowers of the plant, after which they are deformed, as well as the appearance of necrotic spots of brown or yellow color. Bush growth becomes slower.
The gall nematode settles on the roots of the plant, while small galls (growths) appear on their surface, and nematodes are located inside them. In the second growing season, galls are already very distinguishable. The growth and flowering of such bushes is significantly impaired, and in some cases their death occurs. Carefully inspect the bushes and those on which there are obvious signs of the disease, you need to dig and destroy. It is important to conduct timely weeding in the first growing season. The overgrown root system of the plant in the second period of vegetation drowns out the weed grass itself. Spend astilbe treatment with Fitoverm.
After flowering, it is recommended to leave the dried inflorescences on the bush, because they will decorate your garden with their spectacular appearance for a long time. However, before wintering, the shoots of astilbe need to be cut so that they are at the same level with the ground surface. Sprinkle the area with a layer of mulch, and this must be done if the bushes have recently been planted during the division of the rhizome. With the help of division, you can rejuvenate the plant, while it is worth considering that the older the bush, the more difficult it is to separate its lignified root. It is recommended to divide at the beginning of the spring period, with a bud of growth on each dividend. An astilba transplanted in this way begins to bloom in a year. Such bushes for wintering must be sprinkled with mulch, while if the transplant was carried out in the fall, it is still recommended to cover them with spruce branches, which will protect them from autumn, winter and spring frosts.
ASTILBA - GROWING, CARE, DISEASES
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