Cloudberry: planting and care, cultivation in the garden, useful properties
Grassy perennial cloudberry plant (Rubus chamaemorus) is a representative of the genus Rubus of the family Pink. It grows fruits that can be eaten. The scientific name of this plant was derived from the ancient Greek word translated "on the ground", as well as Latin - in the translation meaning "mulberry", the result is "earthen mulberry". Cloudberry is called both the bush itself and its berries. This plant is also popularly called swamp fire, swamp guard, northern orange, arctic raspberry, moss currant, gloss and royal berry.
Where in nature can cloudberries be seen? Such a culture is widespread throughout the Northern Hemisphere. This perennial prefers to grow in moss shrubs, in the northern forest strip, in peat bogs and in the tundra. You can also meet cloudberries in Siberia, Belarus, the middle zone of Russia, as well as in the Far East. Cloudberries are cultivated to produce fruits from which juice, jam, jam, compote and other preparations for the winter are prepared. Also, these fruits have medicinal properties that are used for medical purposes. In Scandinavia and in the USA, this culture is grown on an industrial scale. And in Finland, on a coin of two euros, there is an image of cloudberries, and in this country an experiment is currently being conducted on the greenhouse cultivation of such a plant. The popularity of this culture is due to the fact that its fruits contain a large number of biologically active substances. And yet, because these berries have medicinal properties that are used during the treatment of certain diseases. At the same time cloudberries are used in both traditional and traditional medicine.
Cloudberry is a herbaceous plant or a shrub. The height of the bush is about 0.3 m. The branched long rhizome is creeping. Shoots are thin upright. Regularly located petiolate five-lobed leaf plates unevenly gusseted along the edge have a wrinkled surface painted in greenish color with brown spots. On one shoot, as a rule, 2 or 3 leaf plates are located. The flower is apical; it is painted white. The flowers are unisexual, which means that some develop only a pistil, and the rest - stamens. The fruit is a prefabricated drupe that reaches 15 mm across; it looks similar to raspberries. Unripe fruits are colored red-yellow, as they ripen, their color changes to orange, while the berries become almost transparent, as if made from amber. Ripening is observed in July and August.
Cloudberry Useful properties
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Planting cloudberries in open ground
For the propagation of cloudberries, the seed method is used, as well as the vegetative - cuttings. But both of these methods are long lasting and low effective. A more reliable and simple way is to buy a seedling from a seller with a good reputation, and you can also dig a bush in the forest and plant it on your site if possible. A good bush of cloudberries found in the forest with large fruits that are pleasant to taste in September can be carefully dug with an earthen lump. The root system must be carefully packed in a paper bag. It is best to plant a bush in a new place without removing this bag, because cloudberries are hard enough to tolerate a transplant, and there is no need to stress the plant by wrapping its roots in burlap, and unfolding it before planting. In order to maintain the necessary humidity in the root system, the paper bag on top should be wrapped with polyethylene, but it is better not to tighten the heading.
A suitable landing area should be open and sunny.And the soil should be well-drained, moist, saturated with nutrients and slightly acidic (pH 4.5–5).
Prepare a hole for planting, the approximate value of which should be 0.5x0.5 m. To fill it, use man-made swamp slurry. For this, the walls of the pit need to be coated with a waterproofing material, for example: roofing material, clay or a thick film. The bottom is also laid out with a film, and several holes should be made in it. Then the finished foundation pit should be filled with a substrate, which includes high peat and forest litter (3: 1), it contains the mycorrhiza necessary for cloudberries. The substrate must be carefully tamped and watered abundantly. Do not fill the pit to the top, the substrate should beat about 10 centimeters below its edge. The seedling must be placed in the pit without removing the bag from the paper (it will decompose over time). Fill the pit with the same soil mixture, while there should be so much that it rises a small hill above the surface of the site. The planted plant must be watered. After the substrate settles, the surface of the trunk circle will have to level out.
Cloudberry care in the garden
If cloudberries were planted in the fall, then you should start looking after them in the spring, when they start to grow. It will need to be systematically abundantly watered, weed, and also loosen the surface of the site around the bushes. Water the plant should only lukewarm water, which should stand up from chlorine. Watering is recommended to be arranged daily in the evening, with 50 to 80 liters of water taken per 1 square meter of the plot. At times, you need to add a couple grams of citric or acetic acid to the water for irrigation. To reduce the amount of watering to 2 or 3 in 7 days, the surface of the site should be covered with a thick layer of mulch (peat).
In the first 2 or 3 years of cloudberry growth, special attention should be paid to systematic weeding and loosening of the plot surface. When the crop grows, weed grass cannot harm it. The bushes will bloom in the 2nd-3rd decade of May. It is necessary to ensure that the flowers do not suffer from frost, for this, cloudberries should be covered with spanbond at night.
In the second year of growth after the ovaries appear on the bushes, they will need top dressing. To do this, use a solution of complex mineral fertilizer (1 large spoon per half a bucket of water). Organics for top dressing is not recommended.
Cloudberry collection and storage
The fruits are harvested as they ripen, with its beginning in July. Harvested for half a month, after which the ripened fruits during collection spread right in the hands and are unsuitable for processing. You need to pick orange, half-transparent berries with sepals, and put them in not very tall cans or buckets. Sepals torn later are used as medicinal raw materials. In the process of harvesting, as well as transportation, the fruits should be protected from direct sunlight, so the containers are covered with burdock foliage or a clean cloth, polyethylene cannot be used for this purpose.
This berry is stored extremely poorly, especially if it is ripe. In this regard, knowledgeable people recommend, even before you go for berries, to prepare sugar syrup, it is suitable for making jam from the cloudberries that you overripe. Compote is recommended to cook from those berries that are not ripe. Medicinal are considered to be fruits, foliage, and cloudberry roots, which are extracted from the earth in October or November.
The main types and varieties
A large number of gardeners believe that cloudberry and its relative, raspberry (princess), are one and the same plant. Despite the fact that raspberries and cloudberries are related to the same genus, these plants are different. To date, there are no garden varieties of cloudberries.
Cloudberry properties: harm and benefit
Useful properties of cloudberries
A plant like cloudberry is considered unique, and its impact on the human body is impressive. It contains substances such as: proteins, pectins, organic acids, fiber, sugars, tannins, volatile, antioxidants, fatty acids, plant sterols, vitamins C, A, PP, B1 and B2, as well as trace elements of the hematopoietic series potassium , magnesium, phosphorus, aluminum, cobalt, calcium, iron and silicon. As a result of such a rather diverse composition, this plant is distinguished by the diaphoretic, anti-aging, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, anti-cancer, fixing, wound healing, astringent, anti-inflammatory, general strengthening, immunomodulating, diuretic, regenerating, choleretic, anti-zincotic and
When using roots, fruits and foliage of this culture, you can get rid of serious diseases, for example, diseases such as intestinal and liver diseases, kidney pathologies, and normalization of the cardiovascular system is observed, as well as bile duct problems disappear. Eating fruits helps prevent the development of fermentation and putrefactive processes in the digestive tract, eliminates vitamin deficiency, restores biochemical processes, and also helps to cure skin diseases and colds, and stop internal bleeding. It is also recommended to use the fruits for chronic fatigue, violation of the digestibility of food, cystitis, diarrhea, dropsy, gout, ascites, scabies and tonsillitis. Cloudberries can cure tuberculosis and cough, and people who have had a serious illness use it as a general tonic. These fruits are also used in cosmetology, for example, Lumene produces a revitalizing cream with vitamin C and cloudberry.
Why is cloudberry so expensive? Mushroom picker diary July 22, 2017.
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Cloudberry fruits should not be consumed by people suffering from gastritis with high acidity, duodenal ulcers and stomach ulcers, especially during an exacerbation of the disease. Also, it can not be eaten with individual intolerance.