Shrub roses: care and cultivation, propagation and pruning of roses, photos of bush roses
Shrub roses belong to the genus of wild rose, which have appeared on the Earth about 40 million. To date, this genus unites about 250 species of various plants and more than 200 thousand varieties. First, the rose was called the ancient Persian word "wrodon", then in Greek it was called "rhodon". Later, the word was transformed by the Romans into "rosa". In the temperate and warm regions of the Northern Hemisphere, you can meet roses in the wild, they are not inferior in beauty and excellent aroma to garden forms. Today, gardeners grow a variety of varieties and hybrids of this plant, which differ in the amazing beauty of the flowers. They are especially popular not only among gardeners, gardeners and landscape designers, but also among all lovers of the beautiful. Despite the fact that roses have an incredibly beautiful appearance, they are very simple to grow. This explains their widespread use in green building. There are the following types of cultivated roses: garden and park. The following groups are most popular among garden roses: tea hybrid, grandiflora, climbing, groundcover, bush, floribunda, polyanthus, and also miniature. Below will be described in detail about bush roses.
Features of spray roses
Bushes of this type of rose can have a very different shape, which directly depends on the variety - from sprawling to narrow pyramidal. Also, the height of the bush, which can vary from 25 to 300 centimeters (and even more), also depends on the type and variety. The branches at the bushes of such plants are divided into 2 types, namely, annual stems and uterine (main). Unpaired leaf plates have elliptical or ovoid leaflets with a serrated edge. And also they have 2 leaf-like stipules.
The flower stalk of such plants can have a length of 10–80 centimeters, while the diameter of the flowers varies from 2 to 18 centimeters. Incredibly beautiful rose flowers can have a variety of shapes and colors. Flowers, as a rule, consist of 5–120 petals. There are both single flowers and those that are part of the inflorescences (3-200 pieces). In shape, the flowers are distinguished pompon, cone-shaped, saucer-shaped, pion-shaped, cupped, flat, spherical and others. The color of roses can be very different, so, to date, there are no flowers only in saturated blue. Thanks to the efforts of breeders, a huge number of varieties and hybrids of roses have come into being, which can be painted in a variety of color shades and their combinations, while the “list” is constantly growing. Of course, the blossoming rose flowers are an amazing sight. And even the most sophisticated connoisseur of beauty can delight roses, which during flowering change their color. Also, these flowers are distinguished by a wide variety of aromas.
English spray roses. Issue 2
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Features of growing bush roses in the garden
No wonder the rose is called the "queen of flowers." If you want to have a fragrant rose bush in your garden, then you just need to know some features and tricks in caring for it. So, in order for this plant to grow and develop normally in your garden, you need to know that:
- Shrub roses are characterized by relatively high frost resistance, but this does not mean at all that they do not need preparation for wintering. At the same time, it is worth considering the fact that these flowers are usually quite large, and therefore the gardener will have to make efforts to properly wrap the bush. So, for example, a floribunda rose or a hybrid tea has slightly smaller sizes.
- This plant is not very demanding in care, as they usually say.However, it should be borne in mind that he simply needs the annual forming stems of the stems, as well as the sanitary ones.
- In autumn, it is imperative to carry out the procedure for pruning repeatedly flowering bushes.
- It should be remembered that a large number of fairly sharp spines are located on the stems.
- The bushes of such a plant are spreading and has an extremely spectacular appearance. Shrub roses are often used to form hedges, and it can also be grown as a single plant.
How to plant a rose
What time does the rose plant
Experts advise to plant bush roses exclusively in the autumn from the beginning of September to the second half of October. It is recommended to purchase planting material shortly before planting, and not in the spring. The fact is that in spring, as a rule, they sell planting material that was not bought up last fall. When purchasing seedlings, you need to be extremely careful and carry out a thorough examination. Buy only those seedlings that look the most powerful and have no signs of disease.
After you get high-quality planting material, you will need to choose the most suitable place for planting. Such a plant is photophilous. The best place for planting it will be that which is located far from shrubs and trees, which has good illumination, but at the same time is shaded during lunch hours. On this site, bushes will grow that will look simply luxurious, while their flowering will last relatively long, and the flowers will not lose the saturation of their color. It should also be noted that the place for planting roses should not be in a lowland, it is also better if the groundwater is not too close to the surface of the soil. It is also recommended to protect the bush from the wind blowing from the northeast or from the north. For planting, a plot on which roses were grown for a rather long time will not work. Best for these plants is slightly acidic (pH 6 to 6.5) soil, which is well-drained. It should also be noted that the more nutritious the soil, the more beautiful and magnificent the flowering of bushes will be.
Before planting seedlings in open ground, they must be prepared. This is done immediately before landing. You will need a very sharp instrument, which must be sterilized. With it, you need to trim the roots, while completely cutting off the dried ones, and also shorten the shoots to a height of 15 to 20 centimeters. Then the root system should be immersed in water for several hours and pulled out immediately before disembarkation. Prepare a rounded pit, the diameter of which is from 40 to 50 centimeters. It should be remembered that the depth of the pit should be 10 centimeters higher than the height of the root system, measured with a clod of earth. The bottom of the hole must be loosened using a pitchfork. In order to determine a more accurate depth of the landing fossa, it should be taken into account at what height the vaccine is located. So, after planting, it should be at a depth of 3-4 centimeters.
The land that remained after digging the planting hole should be connected to the compost (3: 1) and a handful of wood ash should also be poured into it. Dissolve 1 tablet of heteroauxin in 10 l of water and pour the resulting solution into a pit. In order for the bushes to take root in a short time, they need to be planted correctly. First, the plant itself must be lowered into the pit, and then gradually it is necessary to fill it with soil, while holding the seedling by the stem. The soil must be compacted all the time. Around the bush you need to make a circular roller at a distance of 30 centimeters from the stem, which will help the water not to spread during irrigation. Then you need to spud the seedling to a height of 15 centimeters and shade it from sunlight for 10 days. The 2nd time to water the bush will be necessary after two days.
In the case when the rose intended for planting in the garden grows in a container, not a very large amount of land mixed with compost should be poured into the hole. Pour a lot of water into the container and lower it into the prepared hole. Carefully remove the container and then pour the required amount of soil into the pit. Follow the instructions above.
The distance between the bushes directly depends on the variety of flowers and can vary from 100 to 200 centimeters. The same distance should be left in the aisles.
With the autumn planting of spray roses, preparing for this procedure should begin in 8 weeks. In the event that the groundwater comes too close to the surface of the soil, then for roses it is necessary to build a raised flower bed. Otherwise, the root system of the plant will be almost constantly in damp, and this can cause rot to appear on it, the bushes themselves will look unhealthy. Remember that the soil in the garden is ideal only in isolated cases, in connection with this it needs to be “fixed” so that it becomes suitable for growing bush roses. Remember that how beautiful the bush you grow will be directly dependent on the composition of the soil. When digging the soil, fertilizer and humus should be added to it. So, at 1 m2 the site takes a full ten-liter bucket of peat and garden compost (manure), a pair of glasses of wood ash and bone meal, as well as 30 to 50 grams of superphosphate. Sand must be added to excessively clay soil (per 1 m2 1 or 2 buckets). During landing, you must follow the rules described above. Bushes planted in autumn should be completely covered with soil for wintering.
Planting roses in spring
In the event that the winter period is characterized by severe frosts, then planting a rose seedling can be done in spring. They do this from mid-April to the second half of May, it is necessary that the soil was heated to 10 degrees. The above preparation of the pit is recommended to be done at least 4 weeks before disembarkation. It is necessary to trim too long roots and completely remove those that have dried, as well as the sick. It is necessary to trim the stems so that they are 10 to 15 centimeters high and have at least 2–4 buds. In the event that the planting material has been stored for a long time and its roots are quite dried up, it is necessary to immerse them in the water a day before planting, and immediately before planting, immerse them in a clay-dung mash. Pour a small portion of the prepared soil into the pit with a slide (see above for how to do this). Then you need to put a seedling in it and holding it by the shoot with one hand, with the other you need to gradually pour soil into the pit, not forgetting to constantly ram it. Remember that the vaccination site should be at a depth of 3 to 5 centimeters. When the seedling is planted, it should be well watered, and when the water is absorbed, then spud. After the appearance of the first sprouts, the soil that was used for hilling the bush must be removed. In this case, the soil surface around the bush should be sprinkled with a layer of mulch (humus or peat), the height of which should be about 5-8 centimeters. As a mulch for areas with irremovable roses, pine bark or wood chips should be used.
How to care for roses in the garden
During the first year from the time of planting a bush rose, you need to regularly pinch the ends of the stems so that the bush becomes more magnificent. Also, before the middle of the summer period, you should pick off the buds, immediately after their appearance. The fact is that they are able to take a large amount of energy from a fragile young bush. From the middle of the summer period, you should wait until the bud is fully formed, and then break it off. It should be noted that this type of rose is distinguished by its rapid growth.In a relatively short time, it becomes a powerful bush and there are much fewer problems in growing with it than, for example, with a standard, indoor or climbing rose. In order for the rose to feel comfortable and healthy, it should be looked after following certain rules. In order for the plant to feel good and develop normally, it needs systematic watering and loosening of the soil surface, regular pruning of stems and removal of weed grass, as well as timely fertilizing with suitable fertilizers.
How to water
Such plants are not very moisture-loving. Experts advise watering only if necessary, or rather, when the soil becomes completely dry. It should be remembered that watering should be infrequent, but rather plentiful. However, just planted bushes during the first year of life must be watered every 2 days. In spring, watered more abundantly, as young stems and leaf plates begin to grow actively. In the arid hot summer period, the frequency of watering should be increased, while it should be borne in mind that for each rose bush one full ten-liter bucket of water should be used. It should be watered under the root and carefully enough so as not to expose the root system of the plant. Remember that cold water cannot be used to spray bush roses. In the last days of the summer period, after the bush fades, the amount of water used during irrigation is reduced. This will avoid stagnation of fluid in the soil, and protect the plant from the appearance of fungal diseases in the root system. However, before the winter period, it is necessary to soak the soil with water. Watering is recommended in the morning, before the heat begins, or in the evening, but it should be borne in mind that if droplets of liquid get on the leaf blades, then they must evaporate before night. It is recommended to use drip irrigation.
It is necessary to feed a bush rose systematically. After the plant is planted, it is not necessary to feed it during the first year, but from the second year of life it is simply necessary to regularly fertilize the soil. Feeding Mode:
- the first (double top dressing) - produced in spring at the very beginning of the period of active growth;
- the second - during the period of budding;
- the third - when the plant fades;
- the fourth - before they begin to lignify the stems.
After pruning the roses in spring time, dressing is performed, for this purpose, 20 grams of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate are taken per 1 square meter. After half a month, the application of nitrogen-containing fertilizer must be repeated. During budding, the following nutrient mixture is used to feed roses: 30 grams of superphosphate, 20 to 30 grams of ammonium nitrate, 10 grams of potassium salt (per 1 square meter). Replace these nutrient mixtures used for feeding, you can "Kemira station wagon", while 1 square meter is taken from 30 to 40 grams of the substance. When flowering is over, complex fertilizers with microelements are used for top dressing. From the last July days, it is necessary to stop fertilizing the bush with nitrogen-containing fertilizers. From August to September, superphosphate and potassium salt must be added to the soil, with 30–40 grams of fertilizer taken per square meter. If there is a desire, then you can feed bush roses alternately with organic or mineral fertilizers. As organic fertilizers, it is recommended to use slurry, chicken droppings or wood ash.
After some time after planting a bush rose, it should be transplanted. The fact is that over time it grows very much and at the same time loses its attractive appearance.It is recommended to transplant the rose in April or October, while it is worth considering that in spring the plant tolerates this procedure much better than in autumn. Before proceeding to transplant, you need to trim the bush by 20 centimeters, remove all weak or damaged branches, and tear off the existing leaves. It should be noted that in the grafted bush, the root system grows inland. In the case when the rose is root, its roots are located relatively close to the soil surface. Given these characteristics of the plant, you need to pull the bush out of the ground with a shovel along with a lump of earth. If peripheral roots are injured during the digging of a rose, then there is nothing to worry about. The fact is that after replanting a bush to a new place, such roots will recover quite quickly. It is recommended to shift the dug root system to a large piece of durable fabric, which will facilitate its transfer to a new place. Moreover, if there is such a need, then when planting a rose, you can not remove the fabric, with time it will decay itself. A large amount of water should be poured into the prepared pit. Next, the transplant is carried out according to the same rules as planting a seedling. During planting, it should be borne in mind that in a grafted rose, the grafting should be under the soil at a depth of 3 to 5 centimeters, and in a root-growing bush, the lump of earth should be at the same level with the soil surface.
When growing such plants in unsuitable conditions for them, they can become very weak and lose their resistance to diseases, as well as various harmful insects can settle on them. Weakened plants are often infected with diseases such as peronosporosis (downy mildew), black spot (rose marsonin), powdery mildew, rust or chlorosis. In order to get rid of fungal diseases, you must use one of the following fungicidal agents: a suspension of colloidal sulfur (1%) or a solution of copper sulfate (3%). Chlorosis, on the other hand, occurs because a plant lacks an element, most often iron. A rose with chlorosis changes its color to yellow. In order to find out which particular element is missing, it will be necessary to analyze the soil. After this, you need to make the soil the element that is missing from the rose in the form of salts in the recommended dosage.
A variety of pests can settle on a bush rose, which are divided into sucking and gnawing. Gnawing includes sawfly larvae, beetles and caterpillars, and sucking ones include ticks, cicadas, aphids, scutellaria and whiteflies. Insects, which are sucking, settle on the aerial parts of the rose. They are able to pierce them and suck out vegetable juice. As a result, leaf blades turn yellow, curl and fly around, and the stem may dry out. Gnawing insects feed directly on the parts of the rose. As a result, the growth and development of the bush slows down, flowering becomes sparse, and the plant loses its attractive appearance. You can fight harmful insects after they settle on the plant, but experienced gardeners recommend that preventive treatment be carried out in the spring. This must be done before the kidneys swell, and insecticides such as karbofos, actellik or horn should be used for this. You can also use a solution for this purpose, which included a bucket of water and 2 grams of kerosene. In the autumn, after the pruning of roses will be carried out, it is necessary to remove all cut branches and fallen leaves and burn them. Then you need to process the bush itself and the soil surface under it with special tools.
How to trim
What time to trim
Pruning roses is the most time-consuming procedure in the care of such plants, which must be carried out necessarily. After pruning, the bush will become more branched and the number of flowers will increase.Trimming stems should be in spring, summer and autumn. Pruning, carried out in the spring, is the most significant, since the bush will be able to free itself from unnecessary and damaged stems, as well as its formation. In the summer, as a rule, pruning is carried out only for sanitary purposes. So, during it, all the extra buds are removed, leaving only one, as a result of which the flower turns out to be very large and beautiful. Also wilted flowers and existing fruits are removed. In the fall, pruning is needed in order to remove all the weak, injured and diseased stems that take away a lot of strength from the rose.
How to trim
Remove from the bush all injured and weak branches should be before the swelling of the kidneys. You also need to trim the branches that grow inside the bush, and then you can proceed directly to the formation. In the case when 2 branches interfere with each other, it is necessary to cut off one of them that is placed less successfully or leave the one that is younger (the bark has a light color). When growing a grafted bush rose, special attention should be paid to pruning the root shoot, because it takes a lot of energy from the flower, as a result of which flowering may not occur at all. It is recommended to prune all the stems except the strongest and strongest ones, which should bloom this year. If you are unable to trim the faded bush correctly, you need to do this at your own discretion. It should be remembered that after trimming at least 2 buds should remain on the stems. On a trimmed bush, pretty young greens appear pretty quickly. Precautions in pruning should be shown when the soil is already depleted or the bush is old, because it is no longer able to restore its own shape so actively. In autumn, you should cut off all the flowers that have already wilted and you need to cut off damaged, weak branches or those that grow inside the bush. Be sure to treat the cut sites with garden varieties.
Propagation of roses
Shrub rose can be propagated by seeds and vegetatively, namely:
- division of a bush;
Most often, only breeders propagate a rose seed, wishing to develop a new hybrid or variety. Only a plant growing under wild conditions can be propagated by seeds, but it should be noted that not all of the known species will be able to produce seeds that can sprout. In the last July days or in August, seed harvesting should be carried out, while the fruits should turn red. They should be cleaned and stored in moist sand for 4 months, while the temperature should be maintained from 2 to 5 degrees. This is the stratification necessary for seeds. In spring, they should be immersed in a solution of a substance that stimulates root growth (for example, heteroauxin) for several hours, after which they are sown, buried in the soil by 1-3 cm, and the soil surface is sprinkled with a layer of mulch (peat, humus). After the formation of 2-3 true leaves, the plants are planted, with the gaps between them being from 6 to 8 centimeters, and between the rows - 20 centimeters. In the summer, you need to feed the plants with mineral fertilizers. For this, 60 grams of phosphorus, 40 grams of nitrogen and 10 grams of potash fertilizers are taken per 1 square meter. Throughout the next year, it is necessary to provide the plants with the necessary care (watering, top dressing, weeding). In August, when the plants grow up, they are used as a stock.
Roses from cuttings
Cuttings are considered the most reliable way in which you can propagate a bush rose. As the stem cuttings, 2 types of shoots are used, namely: semi-lignified and lignified. This method of reproduction is often used in relation to indoor or park roses.The green stems begin to lignify after the first flowers bloom, which is a signal that it is time to cut the cuttings. For cuttings, do not use too lignified and green stems. The approximate thickness of the handle is equal to the thickness of the pencil, and its length is about 8 centimeters. 5 mm above the kidney, you need to make an upper cut, which should be straight. The lower section should be done directly under the kidney and at the same time it should be oblique (at an angle of 45 degrees). All the spikes and leaves should be cut off from the bottom from the bottom, while only 2 leaf plates should remain and they should be shortened by 1/2. The slice below should be treated with phytohormones.
Root cuttings must be in the open ground. To do this, they are planted in a shaded place in a prepared groove filled with sand (15 cm thick sand layer). Between the cuttings a distance of 15 to 30 centimeters is maintained. Near the cuttings it is necessary to compact the soil, then irrigate and cover everything with a film. You should get a semblance of a miniature greenhouse. You can make small holes in the shelter in order for fresh air to come to the roses or you need to systematically open it for ventilation. Provide plants with timely watering, top dressing, weeding and loosening of the substrate. The resulting buds must be cut off, as they weaken the plant. For wintering, these roses should be covered with a heater folded in 2 layers, and a plastic film should be laid on top. With the onset of spring, the insulation must be removed, and gradually it is necessary to accustom the plant to the external environment. To do this, open the shelter. It will be possible to transplant the grown stalk to a permanent place in the garden only in the 3rd year of life.
How to root roses from a bouquet. Site "Garden World"
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The vaccine is produced on young rosehip seedlings. The most suitable species for this purpose is dog rose (Rosa canina), as well as about 20 of its varieties. It has high frost resistance and a well-developed root system. And as a stock you can use roses such as wrinkled, friable, small-flowered, cinnamon, etc. Vaccination with budding is done in the summer in mid-July:
- Remove the ground from the root neck of the stock and tear off all the side stems.
- An incision is made in the form of the letter “T” on the root neck, with a horizontal incision of 10 mm and a vertical incision of 25 mm. In the incision, you need to gently push the bark apart.
- A ripe cuttings are cut from a varietal rose. He needs to remove the leaves and top. Cut a peephole from it from the bottom up, while grabbing a layer of wood (its excess must be removed).
- The peephole is inserted into the incision on the scion, and this place is tightly washed out with a budding film.
- After 21 days, you need to see how the kidney feels. If everything is normal, then it will swell, and if not, it will turn black.
Before hibernation, it is necessary to carry out the earthing up of the plant, while it is necessary to deepen the vaccination site by 5 centimeters. In spring, carefully remove the soil from vaccination and remove the film. It is necessary to trim the stock so that only 1 centimeter remains above the vaccine. A stem that has grown from a kidney will need to be pinched over 3 or 4 leaf plates. If you take care of the bush correctly, then by autumn it can already be transplanted to a permanent place.
You can share the bush only with a root plant. In autumn or spring, you need to dig a bush and divide it with a very sharp, pre-sterilized tool into pieces. Each delenka must have roots and at least 1 stem. Cut the slices with chopped coal and plant the dividend as usual. The best tolerated division of floribunda and polyanthus rose. When dividing a bush in early spring to summer, the delenka will already bloom profusely.
Layers can be obtained from grafted and root-growing bushes.To do this, you need stems that grow at the root of the neck. In early spring, you need to make an annular incision on this stem. Then it is pressed to the soil and placed in a pre-dug not very deep groove. Fix the stem in the middle with a hook or a bracket made of wire and throw it with a substrate, but at the same time the top should be on the surface of the soil. Insert a peg near the top and tie it up so that it looks up. Do not forget to water the soil over the layer in the summer. Separation of the lay should be done only with the onset of the next spring period.
Roses after flowering
What to do after flowering
Every time it is necessary to water less and less plants, while in September, stop watering at all. In mid-August, it is necessary to feed the bush with potash and phosphorus fertilizers. Young shoots can be removed, because before the winter they will not ripen. In autumn, you just need to weave and loosen the soil. For hilling roses for wintering you will need a dry mixture of sand (peat) and soil. After the first frosts, it is necessary to occult the bush to a height of 15 to 20 centimeters and close this place with a film, protecting it from precipitation. If you need to plant or transplant a plant, then this can be done in September.
Preparing roses for winter
In the autumn, cut off all diseased, weak, dried or injured branches, cut off the unripe tips of the stems. Slices anoint garden varieties. Make sure that after trimming the stems are not longer than 50 centimeters. Tear off all the leaves and collect them also from under the bush. It is recommended to destroy them. Treat the bush and the surface of the soil beneath it with Bordeaux liquid (1%). After the temperature drops below minus 6-8 degrees at night, the bushes should be covered with dried leaves or spruce branches. A special insulation is also suitable for shelter, but under it in winter the plant may begin to sing. For this, a frame of 2 arcs is made, which are installed crosswise. Thermal insulation material is laid on top, and a film is placed on it.
Roses in winter
On the site you need to place bait for rodents with poison. After the snowdrifts appear, snow should cover the covered rose bushes. Bushes covered with insulation should be aired during thaws.