Hedera: home care, transplantation and reproduction, species
Mankind has long been aware of the existence of ivy (heders). In ancient Greece, it was used to weave wreaths that decorated the head during a feast. But in ancient Egypt, such a plant belonged to objects of worship and was a symbol of immortality. In those days, people were convinced that if you put a branch of a heder on the chest of a sleeping woman, then this will keep her young and beautiful longer. The mention of ivy can also be found in works of art: on the grave of Isolde and Tristan, the vine and interweaving of ivy intertwined.
This plant makes indoor air much cleaner, as it is able to absorb various harmful and dangerous fumes. In this regard, experts advise, be sure to decorate your kitchen with a heder.
Short description of growing
- Bloom. Grown at home as a decorative foliage plant.
- Illumination. For varieties with variegated leaves, it is necessary to provide bright, but diffuse lighting, a slight shading is also acceptable. Green-leaf varieties grow well in the shade or partial shade.
- Temperature mode. During the growing season from 22 to 24 degrees. A cool winter is recommended, but the room should not be colder than 13 degrees.
- Watering. Humidify a substrate moderately and systematically.
- Air humidity. High. The bush must be moistened every day from a spray bottle. At the same time, during warm wintering, it is recommended to pour wet pebbles into the pallet.
- Fertilizer. Fertilizing is carried out in March – August twice a month, for this they use complex mineral fertilizer for indoor decorative and deciduous crops.
- Rest period. In the winter time.
- Transfer. Young bushes are subjected to this procedure regularly 1 time per year. Older plants are transplanted only when necessary, for example, if the roots do not fit in the pot.
- Breeding. The most common heder is propagated vegetatively: shoots, layering and apical cuttings.
- Pests. Scutellum, spider web and cyclamen tick, greenhouse thrips, aphids, false scutellum and mealybug.
- Diseases. In violation of the rules of care and conditions of detention, the decorativeness of the plant suffers.
Common ivy (Nedera helix) Care and propagation rules
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Heder plant (Hedera) is also called ivy, it is part of the Araliaceae family. In the wild, this evergreen climbing shrub can reach a length of 30 m. In total, experts have found about 15 species of headers, which are found in nature in Asia, North and South America, Europe and Africa. Moreover, they prefer to grow in the subtropics, and are most often found in humid shady forests.
People learned about the existence of headers a long time ago. Among the ancient Greeks, it was a symbol of love and fun. Also, ivy was considered a plant of Bacchus, so poets decorated their heads with heder wreaths at various feasts and celebrations. Even ivy is often used as a healing plant for the treatment of various diseases.
To date, this plant is very popular among designers, while it has found its application both in floristry and in the design of garden plots and rooms. Heder also enjoys great popularity among flower growers, because it is undemanding in care and unpretentious.
Description of indoor ivy
At room conditions, the species most commonly grown is the common hedera (Hedera helix). On the underside of climbing shoots there are many aerial roots that are collected in a dense brush. It is these roots that the plant uses to fix on a support. Simple lobed leaf plates are glossy and leathery to the touch.They are painted in a dark green shade, and the veins in them are of a lighter color. There are forms with variegated foliage. One leaf plate can have 3–7 blades.
Heder blooms only in natural conditions, while it forms corymbose, umbrella-like or racemose inflorescences, consisting of small yellowish-green flowers. The room heder has more than a hundred different varieties that differ in the form of leaf plates, their size, and color.
How useful is a heder, and is it possible to keep it at home
The benefit of the header
The fact that heder has medicinal properties, people learned a very long time ago. The plant is widely used in alternative medicine, and it is also used as a raw material in the production of cosmetics and medicines.
In ivy wood, there is a substance that effectively eliminates spasms, as scientists have proven. This substance is used in the manufacture of drugs used in the treatment of acute bronchitis. The foliage of such a plant is distinguished by antitumor, expectorant, antifungal and antimicrobial effects. Headers make emollient gels based on wood and leaves, which are used as an additional tool during the treatment of obesity, purulent dermatoses and cellulite. When growing ivy in a house, remember that its fruits contain strong poison, which can contribute to the development of poisoning!
What sways folk omens, the heder is considered a husky plant and an energy vampire. People also say that it, like a magnet, attracts loneliness and various troubles to the home and its owners. Many flower growers just because of this do not dare to decorate their house with ivy. However, to believe these signs or not, everyone must decide for himself.
On the contrary, in ancient Rome and Greece, this plant was considered a symbol of family happiness and fidelity, and in eastern countries today it is believed that the heder is a source of vital energy.
The best place for a cheder is the kitchen. There, she certainly will not have time to absorb the vital energy of the residents (not the fact that she does this at all!). But what it precisely absorbs is the various harmful impurities and toxins contained in the air, making it cleaner and safer for humans.
Ivy (Hedera). Transplantation, care, reproduction.
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Heder Care at Home
Among the many useful properties of a header, there is such as high shade tolerance. Few indoor plants boast this. In this regard, such a plant can be grown in the back of the room and this will not negatively affect its development and growth. But pay attention to the fact that forms with variegated foliage need a large amount of bright light, otherwise their leaf plates acquire a plain green color.
What is swinging watering, and here the heder is distinguished by its undemandingness. It is much easier to withstand short droughts than liquid stagnation in the substrate. That is why this plant is considered ideal for those who often have to go home for a long time.
But you still need to water the plant. Remember that with regular drying of the earthen coma, first the edges of the leaf plates turn brown, and then after a while they dry out and die.
It is necessary to moisten the substrate in the warm season so that it is always slightly moist. In winter, watering is carried out only after the top layer of soil mix in the pot dries out a little.
Hedera reacts extremely negatively to high temperature and low humidity. The optimum temperature for it is 22-24 degrees. For the winter, it is recommended to rearrange it in a cool place where the air temperature does not drop below 13 degrees.If in the winter the bush is warm, and even not far from a working heating device, this can cause a loss of decorativeness: shoots will stretch, while the gaps between the leaf plates will noticeably increase. If the plant does winter in the warmth, then it must be watered on time, and still moistened with well-settled soft water from the spray gun every day. Also, during a warm wintering, it is recommended to place a container with a flower on a pallet filled with expanded clay or pebbles, also pour some water into it.
If the air temperature is excessively high in the room during the warmer months, then it is recommended to moisten the header regularly and often. Also, she can regularly arrange a warm shower, which is also used for hygiene.
Top dressing is carried out only from the beginning of spring to the end of summer with a frequency of 1 time in 15 days. To do this, use the mineral complex for decorative and deciduous plants. In no case do not overfeed the flower, because because of this, its leaf plates can become very large, which will negatively affect the decorative qualities of the header.
Indoor ivy should only be transplanted if absolutely necessary. For example, when the root system does not fit in the pot and begins to “peek out” from the drainage holes, or the plant has stopped growing and developing.
On average, young bushes are transplanted once a year, and more adult specimens - once every 2 years. Old bushes can not be transplanted at all. Instead, they annually replace the topsoil in the pot with a fresh substrate.
The best mixture for the heder is an earth mixture consisting of leaf, peat, humus and soddy soil, as well as sand (the components are taken in equal proportions). It is transplanted at the end of the dormant period, approximately in March – April. The new pot across should be 20-30 mm larger than the old. Do not forget to make a thick drainage layer at the bottom of the tank.
Shortly before transplanting, water the flower abundantly. After that, he is carefully transplanted into a new container, trying to keep the earth lump whole. The transplant is carried out by the method of transshipment. Pour so much fresh soil mixture into the new pot to fill all the voids. At the transplanted bush, the surface of the substrate is slightly compacted, then it is well watered and moistened from the spray gun. Put ivy immediately in a permanent place, protecting it from drafts and direct rays of the sun.
Ivy Hedera My care Lemon water from salts lime on leaves
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As a rule, indoor ivy is propagated only vegetatively: shoots, cuttings and layering.
To propagate such a plant, apical cuttings are used. To do this, cut off the upper parts of the stems from the bush, which reach about 10 cm in length. They should be planted in a soil mixture consisting of leaf soil and sand. Cover the cuttings with a glass jar or a cut plastic bottle on top. The optimal air temperature for rooting is from 15 to 20 degrees. Make sure that the substrate is always slightly moist (but not wet). The fastest rooting are those segments on which there were already air roots.
After rooting is completed, take a pot filled with a substrate for an adult heder (see the section "Transplantation"), and several cuttings are planted there at once. By the way, a glass of water can be used to root them.
Hedera - reproduction. [Hope and Peace]
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How to propagate by shoots
Heder is propagated in another way: for this, several bushes are grown from one shoot at once. Cut off the stem, which should have 8–10 leaf blades. Along its entire length, make a longitudinal incision with a sharp tool. Lay the stalk notched down on the surface of the sand, after which it is slightly pressed into the soil mixture to a depth of 15 to 20 mm. At the same time, make sure that the leaves rise above the surface of the soil mixture.Throughout the rooting period, keep the substrate slightly moist.
Roots should grow over the entire length of the stem within 15 days. If the rooting was successful, then the top of the stem will actively grow. Pull the stem out of the sand and divide it into several parts, each of which should have at least 1 leaf plate and roots. Take the pots, in diameter reaching 70–90 mm and plant three segments in each of them.
Choose one healthy, well-developed shoot and make a longitudinal incision on its underside. Put the stem on the surface of the soil mixture next to the parent bush and fix it in this position with a hairpin or bracket. After the roots grow along the entire notch, the cuttings are cut from the mother plant and planted in a separate container.
Hedera has a fairly high resistance to disease. But in the event that you systematically violate the rules for caring for the plant, then problems may arise with it, for example:
- Poor lighting. This leads to the fact that the leaves of variegated varieties lose their unusual motley color and become simply green.
- Drying up earthen coma regularly. This can lead to massive leaf decay.
- Low humidity. Leaves are smaller, and their number is reduced on stems that look bald.
Due to poor care, pests can also settle on the flower, for example: scab, aphid, spider web or cyclamen tick. Most often, their appearance contributes to excessively low humidity in the room. To get rid of pests, treat the bush with Actellic (for 1 liter of water from 1 to 2 milligrams of the product). Also, a solution of Aktara or Karbofos copes well with pests. If necessary, re-spray after 3-4 days. If, in this case, pests remain on the bush, then simply rinse the leaves of the bush in a basin with a solution of the pesticide.
Ivy room home: care, reproduction. My experience
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Types and varieties of cheders with photos
Below will be described those types and varieties of headers that are most popular with gardeners.
Hedera vulgaris (Hedera helix)
This creeping flexible vine is evergreen. Its simple sequentially located leaf plates are three to five-lobed and leathery to the touch. They have a dark green color, and decorates their network of greenish veins. The species has many varieties:
- Kholibra- this dwarf plant has very small leaf plates decorated with a whitish pattern;
- Mona Lisa and Eve - their foliage is almost yellow;
- Glacier and Anniversary - the leaves are decorated with specks;
- Ivalace - corrugated sheet plates;
- Harald - foliage oval, almost round.
Hedera Colchis (Hedera colchica)
The stalks of this evergreen plant are very thin. They are decorated with leathery glossy sheet plates of a dark green hue, they are quite large: the width is about 17 centimeters and the length is up to 25 centimeters. As a rule, the leaves are three-lobed, but can be whole. They smell like nutmeg.
The best varieties:
- Dentata variegata - the edge of the oval foliage is yellowish;
- Sulfur heart - the edges of large greenish sheet plates are slightly turned down, while streaks of greenish-yellow hue pass through the veins;
- Arborescens - the foliage has an oval shape, and the stems of the bush are drooping, they are painted in a pale green color.
Hedera Canary (Hedera canariensis)
This winding evergreen has dark green foliage, its length is about 12 centimeters, and its width is up to 15 centimeters. It is decorated with light green triangular veins. This plant decorates the interior, and it is also used for groundcover, vertical and ampel gardening. The bush has no air roots, so it needs reliable support, as well as systematic pruning.
The best varieties:
- Gloire de marengo - a large bush with pale red climbing shoots and large glossy leaf plates divided into 3 blades, greenish-white dashes are located along the edge;
- Striata - in the center of each leaf plate there are specks of a pale yellow or pale green hue;
- Gold leaf - two-tone green foliage in bright light cast in gold;
- Brigitte - graceful stems decorated with lush little foliage of a star-shaped shape; the variety is most often grown as an ampel plant.
Hedera Pastuchowii (Hedera pastuchowii)
It is also used for decorative gardening, however, this species is rarely grown in culture. In this regard, he was listed in the Red Book of Russia and Dagestan. Its thin, leathery to the touch thin leaves have a solid shape and reach a length of about 10 centimeters. The front surface is brighter, and the wrong side is paler. On the lower stems, the leaf plates have a heart-shaped or rounded shape, and on the upper stems they can be various: lanceolate, ovoid-rhombic, broad-ovoid and rhombic.
Even florists grow such species as: Heder Devil, English and Swedish.
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