Likoris: planting and care in the open ground, types and varieties with photos
A flowering perennial plant of Lycoris (Lycoris), is a representative of the Amaryllis family. This plant comes from South and East Asia: Thailand, South Korea, Pakistan, southern China, Japan, Laos, Nepal and eastern Iran. Some species of licorice were brought to North Carolina, Texas and other states of America, some of them naturalized in a new place. In English-speaking countries, such a plant is called a "spider lily", or "hurricane lily." In the scientific literature, you can find the Japanese name of the lyricis - "higanban". This culture is also called the “flower of death", the fact is that it is often planted in cemeteries.
Features of lyricis
The length of leaf blades varies from 0.3 to 0.6 m, and their width is from about 0.5 to 2 cm. The height of an upright stem varies from 0.3 to 0.9 m. Such a plant can produce about 7 peduncles, which are fragrant flowers. They may have an orange, golden, white, red, yellow or purple color. Flowers of such a plant are of two different types:
- stamens several times longer than perianth;
- stamens only rise slightly above the petals.
The fruit is a three-channel box in which the seeds are located. Most types of licorice are infertile, in connection with this they reproduce only vegetatively.
Such a plant has a biological feature, its leaf plates and flowers do not meet each other. What time does flowering of such a crop take place? In summer, the bulbs in the ground have a dormant period. Peduncles begin to grow in the first days of September, while they very quickly gain height. So, after 4 or 5 days, the height of the arrows can reach about 0.5 m and even more. On 1 peduncle, 4 or 5 flowers grow that have an external resemblance to lilies, they have a funnel shape and many stamens. Due to this, the flowers have an external resemblance to a spider. The flowering time is about 15 days, then the flowers wilt. Only when the plant fades does it begin to form arrow-shaped leaf plates, they do not die throughout the winter period, and this happens only in the first summer weeks.
Outdoor licorice planting
What time to plant
It is recommended to plant the licorice in autumn 4 weeks before the frost. During this time, the bulbs will have time to adapt in a new place, and their roots will grow. If there is such a need, then bulbs can be planted in the spring, but it should be borne in mind that in this case there is a high probability that the flowers will be very sick. The flowering of this plant in the next year after planting will almost certainly not come about the fact that it is very moody.
Growing this culture is relatively difficult. For this, it is necessary to carefully select a site suitable for growing, and the licorice will also need to provide growth conditions that will be very similar to natural. The optimal site for growing such a plant is one that has protection against drafts and gusts of wind and is located in the shade of large deciduous trees.
This crop grows well on sandy soils. Prepare the site by removing all the weeds from it and digging it up, if necessary, add sand, peat, and even humus to it. At the end, the surface of the site must be leveled. On the surface of large bulbs there are scales of a dark brown color, they must be planted in the soil to a depth of not less than 14 centimeters, otherwise they may freeze in a very cold winter. A distance of 0.25-0.3 m should be observed between the planting pits, the fact is that children appear on the bulbs every year, and each of them needs a feeding area.
The bottom of the pit should be covered with a layer of sand, then the onion is placed in it and slightly pressed into the substrate. After that, the onion must be covered with pre-prepared sand, and ordinary soil is used to fill the remaining empty space. When the licorice is planted, the soil in the hole must be tamped, and then planted well watered.
Licorice Care in the Garden
Growing licorice in your garden is not a big deal. To do this, he will need to provide timely watering, weeding, loosening of soil near the bushes and top dressing. Also, the bushes need preparation for wintering. If necessary, a licorice transplant is performed, as well as the destruction of harmful insects.
How to water and feed
Particular attention should be paid to watering licorice during the intensive growth of leaf blades and peduncles. During this period, the soil surface under the plants should be constantly humid, while you should try to avoid the complete drying of the earth. In the dormant period, which is observed in the winter and summer, watering such a crop is not necessary.
Such a plant does not need mandatory nutrition. If the bush has a spectacular appearance and looks healthy, it means that it has enough nutrients. However, if the bushes look oppressed or sluggish, it is recommended that they be fed with special mineral fertilizer for bulb crops.
Unlike most bulbous crops, you do not need to transplant licorice every year. It can be grown in the same place for about 5 years, but then the bulbs must be removed from the ground, divided and planted in a new place. First you need to start preparing new landing holes. Then the bulbs must be removed from the soil, the children should be separated, and this must be done carefully, and then the fault points must be treated with wood ash or crushed coal. After this, the bulbs are planted in open soil (the planting procedure is described above). If the licorice is transplanted in the fall, then the site is not watered. It should be borne in mind that transplanted plants may not bloom for the first 1-2 years after this procedure. You also need to remember that excessively frequent transplants and dividing the bushes of licorice lead to their strong weakening. It is necessary to work with such a plant with gloves, since poisonous substances are contained in all its parts.
How to propagate
Often, daughter bulbs are used to propagate such a culture. The fact is that it is quite difficult to obtain lycoris seeds, especially considering that some of the species do not form them at all. To propagate such flowers in a vegetative way, or rather, daughter bulbs is very simple, but how to do it is described above.
The formation of leaf blades is observed after the wilting of flowers. In the last autumn weeks, the trimmed parts of the bush are trimmed. It is not necessary to remove bulbs from the soil for the winter, as they are deeply rooted and they are not afraid of severe frosts. If the winters in the region are not very snowy and very cold, then the surface of the plot should be covered with a layer of spruce branches or dried leaves. In spring, shelter is removed from the site.
Diseases and pests
Licoris is highly resistant to diseases and pests. However, daffodil flies can settle on it, in connection with this, for prophylactic purposes, the area during intensive growth of bushes is shed with an insecticide solution.
Types and varieties of licorice with photos and names
Gardeners cultivate a relatively small number of licorice species. Below, those that are most popular will be described.
Golden Licoris (Lycoris aurea)
The birthplace of this species is China and Japan. The plant has low frost resistance, it is not afraid of lowering the air temperature to minus 5 degrees. In this regard, in the middle latitudes, this species is cultivated only at home. The height of the bush is about 0.6 m, and its diameter is about 0.2 m.Saturated yellow flowers have a tubular shape, in diameter they reach about 10 centimeters. Their disclosure is observed in the last spring or first summer weeks. Inflorescences consist of 5 or 6 flowers.
Lycoris scaly (Lycoris squamigera)
Originally from Japan. The height of the bush varies from 0.6 to 0.7 m. The basal leaf plates of a wide linear belt-shaped form grow after the flowers wilt. They are collected in a bunch of 6-8 funnel-shaped fragrant flowers of pinkish-lilac color, the central part is yellow, the perianth lobes are bent. The plant does not form seeds, in connection with this, daughter bulbs are used to propagate it.
Radiant Lycoris (Lycoris radiata)
In nature, this species can be found in Korea, Nepal and China, and it is also naturalized in Japan, the United States of America and other countries. In this perennial plant, leaf plates grow later than flowers. Flower arrows have a height of 0.3 to 0.7 m. Leaf plates are placed parallel to each other, their width does not exceed 10 mm, in some cases they bend from the center of the plate. The shape of the flowers is irregular, their side petals are similar to a long and thin mustache, tilted back, while in their middle there is a bunch of wide and short petals, the shape of which is wavy and arched.
Blood Red Lycoris (Lycoris sanguinea)
The height of such a compact bush is about 0.45 m. This species in April forms very small leaves that die in June. Flowering is observed in August. The flowers are deep scarlet in color up to 50 mm.