Daikon: planting and care in the open ground, growing from seeds
The daikon vegetable culture, also called Chinese radish, or Japanese radish, or Japanese daikon, is a root plant that is a member of the Cruciferous family and a subspecies of the sowing radish. This plant differs from radish and radish in that it contains no mustard oils, and its aroma is relatively moderate. This variety was bred by Japanese breeders in ancient times, and it was obtained from a forehead plant belonging to the Asian group of radish varieties, which is naturally found in China. Daikon is translated from Japanese as "big root." In Japanese cuisine, this radish is one of the most important ingredients, it is used for cooking soups, salads and side dishes in boiled, pickled, fresh, as well as stewed. In China, this vegetable is prepared with shiitake mushrooms, while Burmese and Koreans prefer salted daikon more. In Eastern Europe, this root crop is most often called "white radish" or "white radish", salads with sour cream, butter or cream are prepared from it.
Features of daikon radish
Daikon can be annual or biennial. Over time, the plant should form a rosette, which consists of 12–40 strongly dissected leaf plates. He also grows a root crop, which has a larger size compared to a radish, it weighs 0.6-4 kilograms, but sometimes root crops weighing about 20 kilograms are found. Such fruits do not have the sharpness inherent in radish, and their flesh is more tender and juicy. Such a radish is characterized by good keeping quality and it is quite successfully grown in mid-latitudes. The growing season lasts 40–200 days, and it directly depends on the variety. This plant is considered a relative of radish, cabbage, turnip and other not so famous representatives of the Cruciferous family. Every year this culture gains more and more popularity among gardeners, because the daikon is highly cultivated and unpretentious.
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Growing daikon from seeds
Through seedlings, as a rule, those varieties of daikon are grown that have short oval or rounded fruits. The fact is that varieties with long root crops react extremely negatively to picking and transplanting into open ground. Sowing of seeds is carried out from the second half of March to the first days of April. Seeds need pre-sowing preparation. To do this, they are immersed in hot water (50 degrees) for a third of an hour, then immediately cool in very cold water, and then they are put on a shelf of a refrigerator designed for vegetables for 24 hours. Seeds for seedlings are recommended to sow 2 or 3 pieces in peat-humus pots or in peat tablets. Daikon seedlings are planted directly with these pots or tablets. If you decide to sow the seeds in a container or box, then you should choose a container whose depth is not less than 10 centimeters, because this plant has a rather long root. Sowing is carried out in a moist, light, loose substrate, while the seeds need to be deepened by 20 mm. The container on top should be covered with glass or film, and then it is transferred to a warm place.
If the growing conditions are favorable, then the first seedlings will appear after 5 days, after which the film will need to be removed. Caring for seedlings is quite simple, it should be watered in a timely manner, and also regularly loosen the surface of the substrate. After the first pair of real leaf plates is formed on the plants, it will be necessary to thin out the seedlings, for this you need to remove weak and sluggish seedlings, since they will interfere with the growth and development of stronger plants. When the seedlings are thinned out, they will need top dressing, for this they use a solution of mineral fertilizer in a weak concentration.Daikon seedlings do not need too long daylight hours, since it needs to grow root crops. If the daylight hours are excessively long, then the plant can bloom, and the gardener will be left without a crop. Seedlings, which will be transplanted into the greenhouse, it is recommended to grow on a glazed loggia. If the radish daikon will be planted in open soil, then half a month before planting, you need to start hardening it. To do this, every day the seedlings are transferred to fresh air, the duration of this procedure must be increased gradually and done until the plants can not be on the street around the clock.
When to sow daikon? Landing tips
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Outdoor daikon planting
When to plant
It is recommended to plant daikon seedlings in open soil after 2 pairs of real leaf plates are formed on the plants. The timing of planting seedlings in open ground is strongly influenced by the climatic features of your region, as well as the length of daylight hours, it should not be longer than 12-15 hours during the growth and development of the fetus. If the daylight hours are longer, it is highly likely that the bushes will leave in the arrow. During the planting of daikon in open soil, the air temperature should not be lower than 10 degrees. To grow this crop, you should choose the most lighted area.
This plant is undemanding to the composition of the soil, however, it is noted that on neutral and loose sandy loamy or loamy soils it grows better, while the groundwater should lie deep enough. However, there are also varieties that grow well on heavy clays. Acidic soil can be corrected by adding lime to it. Best soil for growing this crop is soil with a pH of 6.0–8.0.
The daikon site should be prepared in the fall. So, the soil will need digging to the depth of the bayonet of a shovel, while 20 grams of ammonium sulfate and potassium sulfate, 1 to 2 kilograms of humus or compost and 40 grams of superphosphate per 1 square meter of land should be added to it. If it is necessary to add lime to the soil, then do it a fortnight before applying fertilizer to it. Organic fertilizers are recommended to be applied under the previous culture, and not immediately before growing the daikon. The best predecessors of this plant are cucumbers, beets, potatoes, tomatoes and carrots. It is not recommended to grow such a radish in areas where representatives of the Cruciferous family (turnip, turnip, cabbage and radish) used to grow.
Seedlings are planted in open soil according to the scheme of 30x60 centimeters, while the row spacing should be equal to 0.6 m, and the distance between the bushes in the row is not less than 0.3 m. Planting is carried out in moist soil. When the plants are planted, they trample the soil a little, after which its surface is covered with a layer of mulch (peat). If there is a threat of spring return frosts, then it is recommended to cover the plants the first days after planting at night with any covering material, for example, plastic wrap.
Planting daikon in the winter
You can resort to winter planting daikon. Its advantage is that plots are suitable for sowing after harvesting the following early crops: lettuce, dill or onions. In addition, at this time there is a decrease in daylight hours, and therefore the risk that the bushes begin to bloom instead of growing the root crop is significantly reduced. However, when sowing this crop in autumn, one should take into account the high probability that the fruits do not have time to reach their maximum value. Before proceeding to sowing, the seed material must be subjected to pre-sowing preparation. You also need to prepare the soil on the site. Experts would hardly call this sowing winter, because it is carried out in the last days of July or the first - in August.However, in the southern regions, seeding can be done in September.
Sowing is carried out in moist soil, while 2 or 3 seeds should be put in one hole. The distance between the holes should be at least 0.3 m, while the distance between the rows should be about 0.6 m. Seeds must be planted in the soil to a depth of 15–20 mm. When the sowing is done, the surface of the beds must be covered with a layer of mulch (peat). After the appearance of seedlings, it is necessary to thin out them, while in each hole one of the most developed plants should remain. It should be noted that extra seedlings should not be pulled out, but plucked out, which will avoid damage to the fetus of the raspberry remaining in the hole.
Growing a daikon in your garden is relatively simple. So, this plant should be watered in a timely manner, loosen the surface of the beds, remove weeds, feed (when grown in poor soil), and also protect from harmful insects and diseases. In addition, the bushes need hilling, because over time, the fruit begins to peek out of the soil (in some cases 1/3 of its length).
How to water
To collect a rich harvest of daikon, it must be systematically watered, while using a sufficient amount of water. The soil on the bed should be slightly moist during the entire growing season. The first watering is carried out after the seedlings appear. With insufficient moisture, it is likely that the bushes will go in the arrow, and the formed fruit will become stiff, and it will also have an unpleasant aroma and a bitter taste. It is necessary to water the bed systematically, otherwise, cracks will appear on the root crops, and this will also negatively affect their keeping quality. Watering the bushes is recommended on average 1 time in 5 days. In the dry period, more frequent watering will be needed, and in the rainy - watering will be less necessary.
Daikon - Japanese radish. Growing Features
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Pests and daikon diseases
If a daikon is improperly taken care of or violated by agrotechnical rules, then this plant decreases its resistance to diseases and pests. He is affected by the same diseases as the rest of the Cruciferous family.
Mucous bacteriosis begins to develop if frequent stagnation of moisture is observed in the soil. The first signs of this disease begin to appear, usually in the second half of the growing season. As the disease develops, the root crop becomes softened and turns dark. In some cases, even when vegetables are placed in the warehouse, you can detect signs of the disease on them, so, on the surface of root crops, you can see the foci of wet rot.
This culture is also susceptible to diseases such as: black leg, mosaic, keel, vascular bacteriosis and felt disease. Prevention of viral and fungal diseases:
- adhere to the rules of agricultural technology and crop rotation of this crop;
- for sowing, use seeds of varieties that are resistant to fungal diseases;
- before sowing, it is imperative to prepare seeds;
- remove weed grass from the beds in time, and also fight harmful insects, which are the main carriers of incurable diseases;
- Be sure to disinfect the store;
- after harvesting from the site you need to remove all plant residues that need to be burned.
The greatest danger of all pests for young bushes is the cruciferous flea. On such a plant, a scoop of garden, sprout and spring cabbage flies, canola bugs and flower beetles, slugs, cabbage bugs, aphids and moths can still settle.
In order to prevent damage to the plant by fungal diseases, it is necessary to take all preventive measures.But if the bush is still sick, then you will need to treat the entire bed with a solution of the biological product Planriz or Binoram, and you must follow the instructions attached to the drug. It is impossible to cure the mosaic, in this regard, diseased bushes must be removed from the soil as soon as possible and destroyed, while the hole should be shed with a very strong solution of potassium permanganate.
So that the cabbage flea does not settle on the daikon bushes, as soon as the seedlings are planted in open soil, the surface of the bed must be covered with large wood ash. As soon as the seedlings appear or the seedlings are planted on the bed, the soil surface should be sprinkled with fine wood ash. If other pests have settled on the bushes, then they should be sprayed with the infusion of red hot pepper. To prepare it, you need to connect 1 liter of hot water with five pods of red hot pepper. The infusion will be ready in 12 hours, after which it must be filtered and combined with 1 bucket of water. In the event that after one spraying with infusion, pests remain on the bushes, after 3-4 days they should be processed again. To destroy the larvae, the plant must be watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. To scare away flies, marigolds must be sown along the perimeter of a bed with this crop. So that slugs do not get on the bed, a groove should be dug around it, which must be filled with wood ash.
Cleaning and storing daikon
It is necessary to start harvesting daikon 40–70 days after sowing (depending on the variety). If the daikon radish was sown in the ground in the fall, then the crop will need to be harvested in October before the onset of steady cold. Root crops should not be allowed to remain in the soil for very long, as the bushes may begin to bloom or the fruits will lose their palatability. Harvesting should be done on a sunny, dry day. If the soil is light and loose, then the bushes can be pulled out by hand, holding the tops. From heavy soil, the fruits will need to be extracted using a shovel or pitchfork. The fruits extracted from the soil are dried by spreading them along the beds, after which they remove the remaining soil from the soil and crop tops. For storage, root crops are cleaned in the cellar, where the air temperature should be 0-5 degrees, while they must be placed in boxes with sand so that they do not come into contact with each other. If favorable conditions are created, then the fruits of the daikon will be able to lie until the beginning of January.
The daikon has many varieties that classify, given the shape of the root crop and the depth of its immersion in the ground. For example:
- Variety group Nerime. Smooth root vegetables have a fusiform shape and white color, their length varies from 0.4 to 0.7 m, and in diameter they reach 8-10 centimeters. The pulp is very juicy. Fruits are buried in the soil 1/3 or ¼ part of the length.
- Miyashige Hybrids. They are very popular among the Japanese. The length of the fruits, having a cylindrical shape, from 0.35 to 0.5 m, and in diameter they reach from 70 to 90 mm, while they are buried in the ground by 2/5 or ½ part of the length.
- Shogoin Group. It has a lower yield, but such varieties grow well in clay heavy soil. The shape of root crops can be flat round and round, in diameter they reach 15–20 centimeters. They are immersed in the soil by ¼ or 1/5 of the length.
- Sirogari Group. Here, early ripe varieties are collected. The length of the cylindrical fruits is from 0.25 to 0.3 m, and in diameter they reach from 6 to 7 centimeters. In the ground, the fruits are buried 2/3 or ¾ of the length. The duration of the growing season in such varieties is approximately 55 days.
- Minovase Group (Minovashi). This relatively large group combines early ripe varieties that are resistant to heat and disease. The lower part of the fruit is elongated-conical, and the upper part is cylindrical.In length, they reach 0.4–0.5 m, and 7–8 centimeters across; fruits are immersed in the soil by ¾ length. Such varieties must be grown on sandy loamy soil. This article describes how to sow and grow daikon varieties of this group.
- Nineigo Group. It includes varieties in which root crops are completely immersed in the soil, their lower part is elongated-conical, and the upper part is cylindrical. The length of the fruit is from 0.4 to 0.6 m, and in diameter they reach 50-60 mm. Such varieties are resistant to frost and shooting, and it is recommended to grow them in light soil.
- Kameida Group. The varieties included in it have conical fruits, reaching 12–15 centimeters in length, and their diameter is 10–50 mm; they are buried in the soil by 2/3 of the length. The taste of fruits is sharp. In such varieties, foliage is also consumed. It is recommended to grow varieties of this group in areas with light soil.
The varieties are also divided according to the cultivation season into early (spring), mid-ripening (summer) and late-ripening (autumn). Unusual daikon varieties will be described below, from which everyone can choose the one that is suitable specifically for his garden:
- Daikon sasha. This early ripening medium-yielding variety is zoned for mid-latitudes. The duration of the growing season is 35–45 days. A large white fruit is submerged ½ part of the soil. Crispy juicy flesh has a moderately sharp taste and a snow-white color; at the surface it is pale green. To grow such a variety is quite simple, however, it should be borne in mind that its fruits can have different sizes.
- Pink glitter misato. This is a Japanese selection. On the section of the fetus you can see a slight pink glow. If this variety is sown in springtime, then it is likely that it will go in the arrow. And when planting in autumn, its root crops will have a small size. This variety is recommended to be grown in the southern regions, and it is not suitable for medium latitudes.
- Cudgel. This mid-season variety is resistant to mucosal bacteriosis. If the growing conditions are optimal, then the white fruits in length will reach 0.6 m, and they will weigh from 3 to 4 kilograms. The white flesh is sweet and juicy.
- The Dragon. This mid-season variety is characterized by productivity. Smooth fruits have a conical shape and white color, they reach 0.3–0.6 m in length, and 60–80 mm across. They weigh about 1 kilogram. Juicy and very delicate pulp is quite dense, it has a sweetish taste, and at the same time its palatability is high.
- Flamingo. This mid-season hybrid is resistant to flowering and productivity. A smooth fruit has an average size and shape of an icicle, it is colored in a purple-pink-white color, while its flesh is pink. The fruit weighs from 0.6 to 0.8 kg, in the soil it is immersed in 2/3 of the length.
- Tsukushi Spring Cross. Such an early ripe hybrid is characterized by productivity and resistance to shooting. The shape of smooth white fruits is cylindrical, they weigh about 0.8 kg. Juicy and tender pulp is painted white. The fruit can be pulled out of the soil without effort.
Also, in middle latitudes, you can grow such varieties as: Caesar, Favorit 9908099, Japanese White Long, Tokinashi, Big Bull, Elephant Fang, Aokabi Daikon, Sakurajima, etc.
Daikon properties: harm and benefits
Useful properties of daikon
Daikon is a low-calorie product that contains a very large amount of vitamin C. Root crops also contain an enzyme that helps improve the digestion of starches. In this regard, the fruits are recommended to be included in the diet for people who want to lose weight. Their composition also includes volatile, which improve the body's resistance to various infections. And the layers of potassium contained in them contribute to the fact that the body is freed from toxins, toxins, as well as excess fluid.And their composition also includes substances such as esterase, amylase and enzymes, which contribute to the normalization of metabolic processes in the body, as well as improve the absorption of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. In addition, the fruits of this plant contain salts of magnesium, phosphorus and iron, fiber and pectins, a large amount of beta-carotene and vitamins of group B.
Daikon is recommended for use in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. If it is raw, then the person’s appetite will improve, and his body will be cleansed of excess cholesterol, and it also helps to eliminate radiation. Just before a meal, it is recommended to drink 1 tbsp. juice of such a plant, since sulfur is included in its composition, which has a positive effect on the work of the gall bladder and liver. In diseases of the respiratory tract (asthma, colds, bronchitis, chronic cough and flu), experts also recommend using daikon juice, since it has an antimicrobial and antiviral effect. 0.2-0.3 kg of the root crop crushed on a grater will help to get rid of a hangover. To remove freckles, heal purulent wounds, as well as make hair stronger, it is recommended to use such juice externally in the form of lotions and compresses.
DAIKON USE AND HARM / Forehead benefit and harm than daikon, forehead useful properties
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This root crop is not recommended for people with diseases of the digestive tract, as it includes a large amount of fiber, and it can cause indigestion and flatulence during digestion. Also, it can not be eaten in the presence of ulcers, gout or hyperacid gastritis, as well as in violation of the kidneys. For those over fifty, before including daikon in their diet, it is recommended to consult a specialist.