Kirkazon: planting and care, seed cultivation, species
Among gardeners, the fast-growing lianopod kirkazon plant, which is distinguished by spectacular large leafy plates, is quite popular. It is often used to decorate arches, gazebos or household plots. This spectacular plant is distinguished from other vines by its exotic flowers, which have an extremely unusual shape. Among the people, kirkazon (aristolochia) is also called: serpentine, apricot, wicked grass, date-finder, feverish grass, chubby, kokornik, royal beard.
A large number of kirkazona species are quite widespread in horticultural culture. For example, it is often possible to encounter such species as the cirrus-clad, tubular, Manchurian and many others. In addition, kirkazon is a medicinal plant, which is quite actively used in traditional medicine.
Features of kirkazon
The kirkazon plant is part of the Kirkazonov family, and this genus unites approximately 180 species. In nature, such a plant can be found in the tropical and temperate zones of Asia, America and Africa. In Russia, only 5 types of kircasone grow in nature, which are found in the European part, in the North Caucasus and the Far East.
This deciduous perennial is a large creeping vine, which has smooth lignified stems. They can be curly or erect. The average shoot length of such a plant is about 10 meters. However, there are species in which the stems are much longer, for example: they can reach a length of about 15 meters in a kirkazon lomonosovidny, and about 20 meters in the Manchurian. Wide crown and lush foliage are the characteristic features of this plant. In addition, it is characterized by very rapid growth; in the warm season, for just 24 hours, its stems increase in length by 12-15 centimeters.
Wide large bright green sheet plates have a smooth edge and a heart-shaped or rounded shape. From other vines such a plant also differs in the arrangement of leaf blades. They are placed one above the other, as a result of which they form a wide crown, which is similar in appearance to the tiled roof.
As mentioned above, flowers in kirkazona are not quite ordinary. They grow out of the leaf sinuses and are completely devoid of the corolla. The composition of the flower includes only the perianth, outwardly similar to a jug, a curved tube, a horseshoe or a gramophone. Most often, the upper part of the perianth is somewhat narrower than the lower, and there is a limb on it that looks like a tongue.
The first time the bushes bloom only after they turn 5-8 years old. Kircasone blooms from 5 to 25 days, and most often its flowers are covered from the eyes by lush greenery. In place of flowers, fruits are formed, which are a box having the shape of a ball or cylinder in which the seeds are located.
Kircasone grows best in slight shading or shade, while the site should have reliable protection against draft. In nature on the territory of the Russian Federation, this lianopod plant is most often found in the southern regions. It is distinguished by its unpretentiousness and ability to grow even on solid soil.
Dragon skin or Kirkazon (Aristolokhiya)
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Kirkazon can be propagated by cuttings, seed method and root layers.
Propagation by cuttings
Harvesting cuttings is carried out in autumn and spring. To do this, cut off annual stems with several buds, the length of the segments should be about 20 centimeters. The soil should be mixed with sand and humus. The segments are planted on a substrate at an angle, while several buds should rise above the surface of the soil mixture. Do not forget to feed the cuttings and water well. After this, the cuttings are covered with glass jars, cut off with plastic bottles or another transparent cap.
Propagation by layering
Propagating kirkazon by layering is much easier than by cuttings. Choose a strong healthy stem and lay it on the ground surface. Fix it in this position, and after 1 season it will give roots. The resulting layering will only have to be separated from the mother bush and planted in a permanent place.
The planting time of kirkazon in open ground depends on how resistant the view is to frost. At the same time, the creeper is planted in autumn or spring. Winter-hardy species are planted in the autumn, using two or three year old seedlings for this. For planting species that are less resistant to frost, spring is suitable. Since the root system of the bushes is superficial and wide, when planting in open ground, a distance of at least 100 cm is maintained between them.
The width and depth of the landing pit should be about 50 cm. A good drainage layer with a thickness of 10 to 20 centimeters must be made at its bottom, for this you can use crushed stone, fragments of brick, expanded clay or gravel. Drainage from above is covered with a layer of sand with a thickness of 5 to 10 cm, and also make organic matter. The earth should be mixed with sand, humus and clay. Immediately carry out the installation of the support, the length of which should not exceed eight meters. A creeper will climb on it counterclockwise. Before proceeding with the planting of a seedling, its root system is shortened by 1/3. During planting, make sure that the root neck of the plant is flush with the surface of the soil.
If you need to transplant an adult bush to another place, then this procedure should be carried out at the beginning of the spring period, before the foliage begins to grow actively.
Care for kirkazon
In order for kirkazon to grow and develop normally, he needs proper care:
- Water the vine regularly, preventing the soil from drying out. During a period of drought, do not forget to moisten the leaves from the spray gun from time to time.
- It is enough to carry out 2 dressings during the season, using a solution of mullein in a proportion of 1:10.
- Loosen the soil very carefully and not very deep. The fact is that the root system of such a plant is superficial.
- Weed must be removed from the site as necessary.
- The surface of the soil around the stem and the entire root system should be mulched by a half-rotted flying foliage. Mulch helps protect the soil from overdrying, and during overheating, saturates the earth with nutrients.
- In order to preserve the decorativeness of the bushes, do not forget to timely cut dried leaves and stems.
Diseases and Pests
Kirkazon is quite resistant to diseases and pests. But if a plant affected by a spider mite or aphid grows next to the liana, then the pests can move to it.
If a spider mite appears on the foliage, then it should be sprayed with a decoction of creeping mustard. From 100 to 120 grams of finely chopped dried grass is poured into one liter of water. Bring the mixture to a boil and simmer over low heat for 20 to 30 minutes. Remove the broth from the stove, wrap and leave to insist for 15-25 minutes. Strain the broth and dilute with clean water in a ratio of 1: 1. Treat the solution with all the leaves.
Only adult kirkazon, who is 2 or 3 years old, is highly resistant to frost. Before the first autumn frosts, shoots of a young plant should be laid on the surface of the site and covered with covered leaves, and the layer thickness should be from 8 to 10 cm. During the winter, the tops of the stems can freeze, but with the onset of spring the plant is quickly restored.
Elegant winter circason in the open ground will die. In this regard, in the fall it should be dropped off in a container, which is placed in a heated, well-lit room. In order not to dig a bush every year, it is simply not planted in the ground, but taken out to the garden in a container.
Types of kirkazon with a photo
Most gardeners compare kirkason with weed. It grows rapidly, is able to easily take root on any soil and quickly climb on a support. The flowers of such a plant look extremely unusual, due to its bizarre shape. For example, in Salvadoran kirkazon, the flowers look like a skull with large empty eye sockets. This species is often referred to as the flower of the devil. A Manchu kirkazon grows in Russia in the middle latitudes and is highly resistant to frost.
Manchurian circason (Aristolochia manshuriensis)
The trunk of such a creeper is lignified. In an adult plant, stems can reach about 15 meters in length, and from 6 to 8 centimeters across. Shoots are covered with soft cork. During the first three years of life, shoots of this species do not grow very quickly. The plant needs support.
Large heart-shaped rounded leaf plates in length reach from 25 to 30 centimeters, at the apex there is a slight sharpening. Foliage has a specific camphor aroma. In a young leaf plate, the lower part is covered with characteristic pubescence, and the upper part is much less pubescent. As the foliage grows older, both of its surfaces are covered with short and sparse pubescence.
Brown small flowers in shape look like small jugs. The peak of flowering occurs in the last spring days. When the plant fades, fruits are formed on it, the shape of which is similar to a cucumber. Seed boxes of a dark color have an elongated shape (width about 30 mm, and length up to 100 mm), dark bare concave-convex seeds ripen inside them, reaching about 0.7 cm across. One fruit contains from 50 to 130 seeds that ripen in mid-October.
Manchurian kirkazon grows best on moist, fertile soil, while the site should be slightly shaded and have reliable protection against drafts. In just 1 year of growth, the stems can reach a length of about 300 cm. For propagation, layering or freshly picked seeds are used (sowing is carried out immediately after their full maturation). For winter, such a plant is recommended to be covered, especially if it is young.
Felted kirkazon, or fluffy (Aristolochia tomentosa)
Outwardly, this species looks more like a strongly branching shrub. It grows best in areas located in the shade and protected from gusts of wind. In height, the bush can reach about a dozen meters.
Petioles on leaf plates are long and can reach from 50 to 70 mm. The ovoid-rounded wide foliage has a diameter of 12 to 15 cm, its edge is smooth rounded. The underside of leaves, shoots and petioles are covered with pubescence. Moreover, on the front side of the leaves there is a rare pile.
Single greenish fluffy flowers grow at the base of the leaf plate and are more like a curved tube, which in diameter reaches about 35 mm. The flower is located on a long (about 50 mm) peduncle and has a three-bladed wrinkled yellow bend.
Wet soil saturated with nutrients is suitable for this species. Unlike other species, a large number of young root shoots are formed in this plant. The fruit is an elongated hexagonal box, which can reach a length of 60 to 80 mm.
Elegant Circason (Aristolochia elegans)
This evergreen creeper hails from the tropics of South America. The heart-shaped leaf plates are quite large in size. During flowering, the bush is decorated with flowers similar to small pipes of a gramophone. Their width varies from 8 to 10 centimeters, and in length they can reach about 12 centimeters. The flowers are white, and dark brown and dark red spots adorn them. The bush blooms in July, and blooms in September. Pollination occurs with the help of flies and other insects. The closure of the entrance to the flower occurs after it is pollinated.
This species is thermophilic, and it is recommended to choose a well-lit area for planting it. The plant may suffer from severe frost and draft. In autumn, the bush is removed from the soil, planted in a container and brought into a warm room. In the spring he is returned to his place.
Elegant kirkazon should be regularly watered abundantly, as well as systematically fed with organics. For propagation, cuttings are used that quickly give roots. Since the seeds do not have time to ripen well, they have low germination. And the emerged shoots are characterized by extremely slow growth.
Kirkkazon ordinary, or lomonosovidny (Aristolochia clematitis)
This herbaceous vine is a perennial. In an adult bush, shoots in length can reach about 15 meters. In this case, the length of young stems can reach one and a half meters. The bare upright slightly curly stem is painted in a greenish tint. The rhizome of this species is creeping. For its cultivation, it is recommended to choose a shaded area.
Round-hearted regularly arranged matte sheet plates reach a length of about 10 centimeters. They are painted green and have a rough edge. From them comes a subtle unpleasant odor, which is necessary to attract flies for pollination.
Flowering is observed from May to June and lasts about 30 days. At this time, the bush is decorated with yellow flowers, the shape of which is similar to a jug. One or several flowers grows from the base of the leaf plate. Only bushes older than 5 years bloom.
This plant is distinguished by its frost and drought tolerance. At the same time, excessive watering can harm him. For propagation, segments of rhizome are used, since seed sets are extremely rare and at the same time they do not have enough time to mature well.
Large-leaved or tubular kirkazon (Aristolochia macrophylla)
The length of the stems of such a shrub liana can vary from 10 to 12 meters. Heart-rounded large sheet plates in diameter reach from 25 to 30 centimeters. They are attached to the shoots with petioles, in length reaching from 50 to 70 mm.
The bush blooms for 5–25 days. At this time, it is decorated with yellowish-green single flowers, which have the shape of a curving tube. They have a three-lobed limb of brown color, the length of which is not more than 30 mm.
For pollination, the flowers of such a plant require flies. In a pollinated flower, the entrance to it closes. The bush begins to bloom only after he is at least 5 years old. In a faded bush, fruits are formed on a long stalk, having the shape of a hexagonal cylinder. They have seeds ripening inside.
So that the bushes grow better, they are planted in nutrient soil, while choosing a shaded place that has good protection from strong gusts of wind and drafts. The fact is that the wind can injure the foliage. Water them regularly, not allowing the soil to dry out. The species can be propagated by layering and seed method. At the same time, the seed material quickly loses its viability.
Liruciferous kirkazon contains toxic substances. Because of this, preparations made on its basis can be used only as directed by the attending doctor and under his supervision. It is the doctor who must prescribe the dosage. For many centuries, the medicinal properties of other types of kirkazona have been studied. The description and methods of using such a plant can be found in various works and manuscripts.
This liana has the following useful properties: antimicrobial, wound healing, antiviral and antifungal. It is used to strengthen immunity and to normalize metabolism.
Liriform circason is used in official medicine to treat a wide variety of diseases, namely:
- respiratory diseases - cough, flu, pulmonary tuberculosis, shortness of breath, tonsillitis and SARS;
- violations in the female reproductive system - cystitis, problems with the menstrual cycle, erosion, infertility and myoma;
- skin diseases - scabies, psoriasis, dermatosis, swelling, rashes, abrasions, bedsores, itching, festering wounds, varicose ulcers, eczema and diaper rash;
- diseases of the vascular and cardiac system - varicose veins and hypertension;
- problems in the activity of the nervous system - migraine, nervous exhaustion and overwork, headache, insomnia, neurasthenia and stuttering.
In alternative medicine, tinctures, decoctions and ointments for external use are prepared on the basis of such a plant.
The fact that kirkazon has healing properties, a man knows for a long time. In eastern and Chinese traditional medicine, this plant is used for a variety of diseases. And the African people use it as an antidote for snake bites.
The plant contains poison, and therefore funds based on it cannot be taken above normal. It can not be used by pregnant women, breastfeeding women, and also children. It is also contraindicated in uterine bleeding, gastritis, individual intolerance, and also with diseases of the kidneys and liver.
When applying compresses or when wiping the skin, a burn may form (if the skin is highly sensitive) or a burning sensation (in case of fungal skin lesions) will appear. Most often used only externally.
Decoction of the roots
A decoction is obtained from the roots of kircasone, which is used for compresses and added to the bath. It helps with the following ailments: diseases of the joints and skin, as well as metabolic disorders.
Pour half a liter of freshly boiled water into a thermos and add 2 or 3 tablespoons of finely chopped dried roots. Close the thermos lid and leave for 2-3 hours, then pour its contents into the pan and boil for 5 to 7 minutes. Remove it from the stove and cover with a towel for half an hour. The cooled broth is filtered. It is used to wipe problem areas (for 15–25 minutes), to prepare foot baths, or to make compresses (put overnight).
Tincture is prepared from the grass of such a plant, which is used for lotions for severe pain or inflammation on the skin. Half a glass (100 ml) of vodka and ½ tsp. finely chopped dried kirkazon grass is mixed and poured into a container, which is tightly corked and put in a cool dark place for 7 days. Do not forget to shake the contents of the container once every couple of days. Drink three times a day, while using from 15 to 20 drops.
Kirkazon: medicinal properties and contraindications for psoriasis and other diseases
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Harvesting of raw materials
Both roots and kirkazon grass have healing properties. Cut foliage and shoots during the peak of flowering, and the roots are removed from the ground in the autumn. The aboveground part of the bush is laid out on a horizontal plane in a well-ventilated room, it must be turned over systematically. Avoid direct sunlight. The roots are removed from the roots with cool water and dried in the oven at 60 degrees.
Finished raw materials are stored in tightly closed containers for about 2 years.
Pharmacological properties of liriform kirkazon
Aristolokhinovy acids contained in kirkazon lomonosovidny increase heart contractions, cleanse the body of excess fluid, contribute to the expansion of blood vessels. Means based on such a creeper are very effective in viral and fungal diseases.
It also contains capillary poison, which is prone to accumulation in tissue cells. Apply it very carefully, because a carcinogenic effect can occur after a long period of time.
The chemical composition of different types of kircazone can vary significantly, but they also have common components - these are aristolochic acids and their compounds (glycosides, lactones and ethers).The greatest danger is precisely kirkazon lomonosovidny, because it has the highest concentration of aristolochic acids I and II.
Still in the plant there is an essential oil, phenolic acids, bitter and tannins.
Kirkazon in landscape design
A fast-growing kirkazon plant with lush greenery is used for vertical gardening of building facades, fences, balconies, arbors and terraces. And also to create green verandas and tunnels, and a green background for flower beds.
KIRKASON (Aristolochia) for VERTICAL GREENING.
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