Peanuts: outdoor cultivation, how to grow in Ukraine and Russia
Cultivated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), also called peanuts, limbo underground peanuts, are in great demand in the earthen culture. They are a representative of the genus Peanuts of the legume family. Scientifically, peanuts are legumes, not nuts. Peanuts come from South America, there he was popular even when the mainland had not yet been discovered by Columbus. The Spanish conquistadors brought this culture to Europe, and it came to Africa later thanks to the Portuguese, where peanuts became very popular, because it not only has nutritional properties, but also grows well on scarce soils. Later, this culture was brought into slave traders in North America. In the thirties of the 16th century, peanuts came to the Philippines with the Spanish sailors, and they were brought to India and Macau by the Portuguese. After that, this plant came to China and became a real salvation from hunger to local residents. Industrial cultivation of this crop in South Carolina began in the early years of the 19th century, while peanuts fed both armies during the war between the South and the North. For many centuries peanuts have been considered the food of the poor, in this regard, farmers did not pay much attention to this plant. However, everything changed in 1903 when George Washington Carver, an American agricultural chemist, was able to invent more than three hundred products from such a plant, namely: cosmetics, dyes, laundry soap, drinks, medicines, printing ink, a pest exterminator, etc. e. And since in those years the cotton harvest suffered greatly from weevil, Carver managed to convince the farmers to alternate the cultivation of peanuts with the cultivation of cotton, which greatly depleted the soil. As a result, this plant became the main cash crop of the southern states, and a monument was even erected to Carver in the city of Dothan, Alabama. Today, peanuts are cultivated on an industrial scale in various regions of the former USSR (Transcaucasia, Ukraine, etc.).
Cultivated peanuts are annuals that reach a height of 0.7 m. Its shoots are highly branched. The root root is also branched. Bare or pubescent erect shoots are slightly faceted, the side branches are directed upward or lying. There is pubescence on the surface of the next paired-paired leaf plates, they reach 3–11 centimeters in length, the petiole is grooved and there are two pairs of pointed elliptic leaflets. Short axillary inflorescences consist of 4-7 flowers of red-yellow or whitish color. The life of each individual flower is only about 24 hours, but the flowering of peanuts is long, it begins in the last days of June or the first days of July, and it ends in late autumn. The fruits are bloated two-four-seed oval-shaped beans, they reach a length of 15-60 mm, and on their surface there is a spider web pattern. During ripening, the fruits bend to the surface of the soil, after which they are immersed in it. It is in the earth that they ripen. The seeds of this plant are the size of a bean, they have an oblong shape, and on top are covered with a skin of pinkish, dark red, yellow-gray or cream color. Ripening is observed in September or October.
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Peanut Growth Features
For growing peanuts, only open and sunny areas are suitable, on which there is not even a slight shadow from other plants or buildings. The growth of this culture is observed only at temperatures above 20 degrees. If the temperature is less than recommended at least a couple of degrees, then there is a cessation of growth of bushes.As a rule, peanuts in open ground are grown in areas with a warm climate, while sowing seeds in the soil is produced during the period when acacia blooms. In Russia, especially in regions with a relatively cool climate, it is recommended to use the seedling method for growing peanuts.
What time to plant in open ground
Peanuts should be planted in spring in a well-heated soil (about 12-14 degrees), while it is produced after planting melons. This time, as a rule, falls in mid-May or later. It should be remembered that return frosts can destroy this culture. Peanuts for sowing can be purchased at the market or at the grocery store, but you must remember that it should not be candied, roasted or salted.
Crop rotation rules
When cultivating peanuts, how you observe crop rotation is important. This crop grows very well after cucumbers, potatoes, cabbage and tomatoes, especially if organic matter was introduced into the soil during their cultivation. And the area where legumes were grown (peas, lentils, beans and beans) is not suitable for sowing, since there is a high probability of developing root rot.
A suitable soil should have a light, moist and neutral reaction, while it should have a relatively high content of magnesium, humus and calcium. Sandy loam or black soil is best suited. Salted soil is not suitable for peanuts, and acidic soil must be liming before sowing. For sowing this culture, the site must be prepared in advance. To do this, you need to dig the soil in the fall to a depth of 0.25 to 0.3 m, making humus in it (per 1 square meter of a 1-3 kilogram plot). In spring, the site is re-excavated, but to a lesser depth, and Nitrofoska (50 grams per square meter of land) must be added to the soil.
To plant this culture, you should prepare holes of ten-centimeter depth, which must be staggered, the distance between them should be equal to half a meter. The row spacing should be 0.25–0.3 m. When sowing peanuts in the garden, a square-nesting method according to the scheme of 0.7x0.7 m or 0.6x0.6 m is used. Such a plant can also be sown with the wide-row method, while between in rows it is necessary to leave a distance of about 0.6–0.7 m, and between specimens in a row - from 15 to 20 centimeters.
In one hole, you need to place 3 seeds of large size, since small seeds very often do not germinate. When the seeds are planted, the crops should be very well watered, using a hose with a shower head for this, so as not to wash the seeds, the pressure should be made rather weak.
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Growing Peanuts in the Garden
Caring for peanuts is easy enough. In the dry period, it must be watered in a timely manner, and also the site must be weeded in time and its surface loosened, and do not forget about top dressing. Particular attention should be paid to weeding at a time when the seedlings are still very young and short in stature. During grass removal, soil loosening can also be done, and vice versa. 6-8 weeks after sowing, flowering should end. At this time, the ovaries will begin to grow and bend to the surface of the site, after which they will grow into the ground, where fruit ripening is observed. After the ovaries begin to bend to the ground, the bushes should be covered with loose and moist soil (like potatoes), in this case the receptacle will reach the nutrient medium much faster. Hilling can be replaced by mulching the surface of the site with sawdust, peat, humus or sand, while the layer thickness should not be less than 50 mm. On average, 30-50 fruits are formed under each plant, and 1-7 seeds are in each of them.
How to water
This culture needs moist soil, but it should not be too wet. Watering should be done after the topsoil has dried. When the bushes begin to bloom, they will need abundant watering, which is arranged 1-2 times in 7 days in the morning. When the bushes bloom, it is not watering that will be of paramount importance, but humidification of the plants from the spray gun, which is performed in the evening once every 1-2 days. If rainy weather is observed during fruit ripening, then the surface of the plot must be covered with plastic wrap. And during a long dry period, sprinkling is recommended for this culture, if it is not possible to arrange it, then you should water the bushes along the furrows located between the rows. During the season, the plant will need 4 or 5 waterings.
After the height of the seedlings reaches 10 centimeters, they will need to be fed, for this the following nutrient mixture is used: 45 grams of potassium salt, 20 grams of ammonium nitrate and 70 grams of superphosphate are taken for 1 bucket of water. At the beginning of fruiting, the bushes are recommended to be re-fed, but this feeding is not necessary.
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Growing Peanuts at Home
Select healthy and strong seeds that should be filled with water at night, after adding 1 drop of Epin to it. Already in the morning on the seeds you can see small sprouts of white color. Take a wide container and fill it with loose soil, in which seeds are sown. Seedlings will appear quite quickly, and when the bushes bloom, then hypophores will form on the place of the flowers, they bend and go into the substrate, in which the fruit develops.
Seedlings should be protected from any drafts, they should be put on the window of the southern orientation. At noon, the bushes must be shaded. Watering should be systematic, but do not allow fluid to stagnate in the substrate. On hot days, the bushes must be moistened with a spray gun, in this case spider mites will not be able to settle on them. 10-12 weeks after the appearance of seedlings, the leaf plates begin to change color to red, and this indicates that the beans in the substrate are fully ripe.
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Pests and diseases of peanuts with photo
Peanuts can be affected by powdery mildew, phylostictosis, alternariosis, fusarium wilt and gray rot.
At the initial stage of development of powdery mildew, single spots of powdery plaque are formed on both surfaces of the leaf blades. Over time, they become larger until they completely cover the entire plate, as a result, the sheet becomes yellow and dies. Not only leaves are affected, but also shoots, as well as embryos. If the bushes are very affected, then they need to be sprayed with a solution of a fungicidal preparation, for example: Quadris, Switch, Topaz, Bravo, Ridomil, Skor or Horus.
Leaf spotting (phylostictosis) is less dangerous than powdery mildew, but peanuts must still be treated. At the affected bush, small spots of brown color appear, which grow in diameter up to 0.6 cm. Over time, the middle in the spots fades, and the tissue dies in them, while the border turns purple-brown. Most actively, such a disease develops with high humidity. It is recommended to deal with such a disease by spraying with broad-spectrum fungicidal agents.
Black spotting of foliage (alternariosis) develops in those years when, at the end of the growing season, prolonged warm and humid weather is observed. In the affected bushes, spots of black color appear on the edges of the leaf plates, reaching about 15 centimeters across. Over time, small spots become larger and merge with each other, due to which the edges of the sheet plates die off.On the surface of the spots is a dense coating of black fungus. In order to prevent, you need to follow the rules of agricultural technology of this culture, thanks to this the bushes become more resistant to pathogenic bacteria.
If the bush is affected by Fusarium wilting, then it has root rot. The plant itself stops growing and developing, its aboveground parts turn yellow and die off quickly enough. This disease is dangerous because it subsides for a while, but during flowering and laying of beans, its more rapid development is observed, as a result, the bush dies before the crop is harvested. In order to prevent, it is necessary to follow the rules of agricultural technology of this culture, and also you need to harvest the crop on time.
The development of gray rot is usually observed at the end of flowering bushes. In the affected plants, spots of rusty-brown color appear, from leaf plates along the petioles they go to shoots. Because of this, the upper part of the stems withers and dies. No bean formation is observed on the affected bushes. And if the fruits have already formed, then their deformation occurs. The disease develops very quickly in the last weeks of the summer period, if the weather is warm and humid. To prevent the development of gray rot, it is necessary to grow such a culture on a high agricultural background.
Less commonly, peanuts get sick with dry rot, cercosporosis, dwarfism, or ramulariosis.
Aphids, thrips or caterpillars can live on this culture. To get rid of such pests, the surface of the site must be covered with a layer of tobacco dust or wood ash. To get rid of thrips, bushes must be sprayed with insectoacaricide.
It is much more difficult to get rid of the wireworm (the larva of the nutcracker beetle), which lives in the soil. Despite the fact that the fruit is covered by the shell, such pests easily gnaw passages in it and eat away seeds. You can get rid of such a pest with the help of traps. To do this, dig holes in several places on the site, put pieces of carrots, beets or potatoes in them. The holes on top must be covered with a piece of slate, a board or metal. After some time, the trap should open and destroy pieces of vegetables, along with the pests in them. In order to prevent, it is imperative to adhere to the rules of agricultural technology of this crop, observe crop rotation, and also weeding in a timely manner.
Collection and storage conditions
After the peanut leaf blades turn yellow, 2 fruits must be removed from the ground. If seeds can be easily husked out of them, then this means that it is time to start harvesting. As a rule, cleaning is carried out at a time when the street temperature is kept within 10 degrees. However, it is not worth delaying the collection of fruits, since if the soil freezes, the seeds will become bitter and cannot be eaten. Harvest fruits should be on a dry and cloudless day. To remove the beans from the soil, you should use a pitchfork.
The dug fruits must be freed from the shoots. They are laid out in a shaded place in the fresh air to dry. After their shells dry well, the fruit is poured into cloth bags, which are stored in a cool (about 10 degrees), dry room with good ventilation.
Types and varieties of peanuts
The Legume family has about 70 species of peanuts. In South America, several species of this plant are cultivated, and outside of this continent only 2 types of peanuts are grown, namely: Pinto peanuts and cultivated peanuts. There are many cultivars of peanuts, which are conditionally divided into 4 groups:
- Spanish group (Spanish varieties). This small peanut is grown in the southwestern and southeastern United States, as well as in South Africa. Compared to other varieties, this one contains more oil.In such a plant, a brown-pink shell covers small kernels. As a rule, these fruits are used for the manufacture of peanut butter, salted and candied nuts. The largest suppliers of this variety of peanuts are Oklahoma and Texas. The best varieties of this group: Dixie Spanish, Spentex, Argentinean, Spaneth, Natal ordinary, Star, Comet, Spanhoma, Florispan, Spankromm, Tamspan 90, O’Lin, Spanko, Vilko, White Core, Shafers Spanish, etc.
- Valencia Group. Most varieties of this group have large kernels. The height of a vigorous bush is about 1.25 m, smooth fruits are three-seeded. The oval-shaped seeds are covered with a rich red shell, so they are often called redskins (redskins). This group is considered a Spanish subgroup.
- Runner Group. The varieties included in this group are more high-yielding, their taste is higher than that of the Spanish varieties, and such fruits are much better fried. The oblong-shaped fruits are large. They are used to make peanut butter, as well as salted peanuts for beer. The best varieties of this group: Dixie Runner, Early Runner, Virginia Bunch 67, Bradford Runner, Egyptian giant, North Carolina Runner 56-15, Georgia Green, Flavored Runner 458, Southeast Runner 56-15, etc.
- Virginia Group. In these varieties of peanuts, the fruits are large and selected, they are fried in the shell and used for the preparation of confectionery. The best varieties: Shulamit, Gull, Wilson, Gregory, Virginia 98R, Perry, Virginia 92R, North Carolina 7, North Carolina 9 and others.
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Peanut Properties: Harm and Benefit
Benefits of Peanuts
Peanut fruits contain linoleic, pantothenic and folic acids, vegetable fats, glutenins, easily digestible proteins, starch, sugars, vitamins A, E, D, PP, B1 and B2, iron, macrocells magnesium, phosphorus and potassium. Beans contain antioxidants, which are considered the most effective preventive measures for cardiovascular diseases. Such antioxidants are still found in pomegranate, red wine, strawberries and blackberries. In the proteins of this plant, the optimal ratio of amino acids is observed, due to this they are perfectly absorbed by the human body.
Fats, which are part of the fruit, have a slight choleretic effect, so they are recommended for peptic ulcer and gastritis. Folic acid is involved in the renewal of cells in the human body. And antioxidants, which are many in peanuts, help protect cells from free radicals, and are also an excellent prevention of heart disease, atherosclerosis, vascular ischemia, premature aging and the formation of cancer cells.
The fruits of such a plant have a sedative effect on a person with increased excitability, help in the rapid restoration of strength, help improve memory, increase potency, enhance sexual desire and eliminate insomnia. Since peanuts contain a large amount of protein, it enhances the feeling of satiety, in this regard, nutritionists often use it as the basis of diets aimed at weight loss. And it is also known that in such fruits there is no cholesterol.
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If there are peanuts in excessively large quantities, then it can harm even a relatively healthy person. In this regard, in its use it is necessary to know the measure, especially to people suffering from excess weight. If a person is prone to allergies, then peanuts can harm him greatly, especially if the kernels are eaten together with the skin, which contains strong allergens. They can not be eaten with arthrosis and arthritis. You also need to remember that eating rancid or moldy fruits can cause poisoning.